SC MSCI 101 - Study Guide--2nd exam (3 pages)

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Study Guide--2nd exam



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Study Guide--2nd exam

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Pages:
3
School:
University Of South Carolina-Columbia
Course:
Msci 101 - The Ocean Environment
The Ocean Environment Documents

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Structure of water molecule o Hydrogen and oxygen covalently bonded 105 angle between H atoms o electrons unevenly distributed polar O negative charge H positive charge o Dissolving power Result of polarity Hydrogen bonding Surround salts and other substances and pull the apart Universal solvent o Transmission of heat Specific heat 1 cal g C Dissolved salts change boiling freezing point Heat capacity amount of heat needed to produce a unit change in temperature Conduction touching Convection density driven Radiation direct transmission without a medium Oceans heated by solar radiation 80 calories needed to change 1 g of water to water vapor o Changes in states of matter Due to addition loss of heat Latent heat heat needed to change states Fusion solid and liquid Vaporization liquid and gas Kinetic energy Ice low Water medium Vapor high Density of water with respect to o Deep ocean waters o Salinity and temperature variations thermohaline circulation Warm water cold water Density increases when salt is added o Water column structure mixed layer thermocline etc Mixed layer 0 100m Pycnocline 100 1000m Deep ocean 100 5000m o Seawater 35g kg o Cline large change in a property of water with respect to depth Thermocline decrease in temperature Halocline increase in salinity Pycnocline increase in density o Density changes in surface Decrease Solar heating Freshwater input Increase Evaporation cools and increases salinity Freezing Energy transmission in the ocean with respect to o Light attenuation Decrease in light intensity over a distance Beer s Law Iz Ioe kz Iz Io between 0 and 1 Io 1670 W m2 at sun Io 360 W m2 at surface o Sound Velocity of sound in water 1500 m s High frequency sounds don t travel as far as low frequency o Attenuation at different wavelengths Blackbody radiation Units of concentration o Percent to ppm 1 10000 ppm o Per mil parts per thousand g kg o Ppm g o Ppb ng g o Ppt pg g Know range of salinity of ocean surface and depth o Surface salinity



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