VCU CHEM 301 - Exam 1 Study Guide (3 pages)

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Exam 1 Study Guide



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Exam 1 Study Guide

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In the study guide, I have outlined important concepts from chapters 1-3.


Pages:
3
Type:
Study Guide
School:
Virginia Commonwealth University
Course:
Chem 301 - Organic Chemistry I

Unformatted text preview:

CHEM 301 Edition 1nd Exam 1 Study Guide Lectures 1 7 Lecture 1 August 21 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Ionic bonds When ions have separate charges and they attract each other Na and Cl Covalent bonding Electrons are shared rather than transferred Formal charges provide a method for keeping track of electrons Formal charge group number nonbonding electrons shared electrons Resonance structures when two or more valence bond structures are possible differing only in the placement of electrons molecule will show characteristic of both structures Condensed structural formulas written without showing all the individual bonds Line angle formula often used for cyclic compounds and bonds are represented by lines and carbon atoms are assumed to be present wherever two lines meet or a line begins or ends Isomers same formula different arrangement Constitutional connected differently Stereoisomers same connectivity different spatial order Conformational rotation around single bonds Configurational no rotation Lecture 2 August 26 Resonance Structures The net charge must remain the same Double bond pi and lone pair electrons can be moved Curved arrows show electron movement The number of electrons CANNOT be different Single bonds CANNOT be broken Lecture 3 August 28 A Bronsted Lowry acid is any species that can donate a proton A Bronsted Lowry base is any species that can accept a proton Ka is called the acid dissociation constant and its value indicates the relative strength of the acid A large Ka means the acid is a strong acid A small pKa means the acid is a strong acid A large pKa means the base is a strong base Lewis bases are species with available electrons that can be donated to form new bonds Lewis acids are species that can accept these electron pairs to form new bonds Lecture 4 September 2 The strength of an acid is inversely related to the strength of its conjugate base For an acid to be strong its conjugate base must be stable If an acid is weak its conjugate



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