UT AST 301  Exam 1 Study Guide (3 pages)
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Exam 1 Study Guide
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 3
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 Study Guide
 School:
 University of Texas at Austin
 Course:
 Ast 301  Introduction to Astronomy
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AST 301 Exam 1 Study Guide Lectures 1 4 Lecture 1 September 2 Prehistoric astronomy Astronomy is one of the oldest professions is based on what It is based on civilizations dating significant events such as births and deaths predicting times for harvests and planting and navigation Astronomy is universal to all cultures Ancient structures were built with astronomically significant orientations because prehistoric people were more astronomically aware Though they understood little they observed much and observed the darker skies What is the significance of eclipses and phases of the moon Sun and moon were very important in the daily life of the ancients There are solar and lunar eclipses partial and total penumbra and umbra Ancients could predict by observing cycles of repetition saros cycle 18 yrs 11d They were able to figure out the Earth was round because of its spherical shadow In a solar eclipse the moon blocks out the sun Lecture 2 September 4 Historical astronomy Explain Kepler s Three Empirical Laws and Newtons Theoretical Laws What did it lead to Kepler s three empirical laws were mathematical analysis The first law is that orbits are eclipses with sun at one foci nearly circular The second law is the line between a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas in equal times The third law is the square of orbital period increases with cube of semi major axis The planets farther from the sun move faster Newton had three theoretical laws The first is that in the absence of force objects move in a straight line The second law is that force equals mass times acceleration The third law is that action equals reaction or force force This led to Newton s fourth law which states that gravity is universal and cannot extend undiluted forever which is why it is an inverse square law Lecture 3 September 9 How can you tell if a theory is a scientific theory or not What were Galileo s observations Science is the way of thinking and things you can have a scientific theory and
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