Mizzou CHEM 2030 - Exam 1 Study Guide (23 pages)

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Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam 1 Study Guide


Study Guide for Chapters 1-3

Study Guide
University of Missouri
Chem 2030 - Survey of Organic Chemistry
Survey of Organic Chemistry Documents

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Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 3 Organic Chemistry Test 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 Lectures 1 2 1 1 How Electrons are Arranged in Atoms Atoms Contain a small dense nucleus surrounded by electrons Nucleus Positively charged contains most of the mass of the atom Consists of Protons and Neutrons Exception Hydrogen whose nucleus consists of a single proton Protons Positively charged Neutrons Neutral charge Atomic Number Equal to the number of protons in it s nucleus And to the number of of electrons around the nucleus in a neutral atom Atomic Weight Equal to the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus We don t count the electrons because they are very light by comparison Orbitals Where electrons are located They are grouped in shells and can hold a maximum of 2 electrons Valence Electrons Located on the most outermost shell The kernal of the atom contains the nucleus and the inner electrons S 1 Orbital P 3 Orbitals D 5 Orbital CHEM 2030 The greater the atomic number the greater the number of electrons 1 2 Ionic and Covalent Bonding Inert Gas Has a stable electron configuration Does not combine with other atoms Ionic Bonds Composed of positively charged cations and negitively charged anions Electropositive Atoms give up electrons and form cations Electronegative Atoms accept electrons and form anions Generally speaking the more electropositive elements when looking at the periodic table are farthest to the right and higher up Atoms are more electropositive when it is easier to lose an electon Ex Li3 is more electropositive than Be4 Ex Na2 is more electropositive than Li2 because it is shielded energy by 2 inner shells Therefore it is less energy for Na2 Covalent Bond Formed when two atoms share one of more electron pairs Molecule Consists of two ore more atoms joined by covalent bonds Equal Electronegativities The electron pairs are shared equally Bond Energy BE The energy necessary to break a mole of covalent bonds The amount of energy depends

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