UT Knoxville ANTH 110 - Chromosomes and Mendelian Genetics (2 pages)

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Chromosomes and Mendelian Genetics



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Chromosomes and Mendelian Genetics

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Brief overview of chromosomes and a look at Mendel's discoveries


Lecture number:
6
Pages:
2
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
University of Tennessee
Course:
Anth 110 - Human Origins
Edition:
1

Unformatted text preview:

ANTH 110 1nd Edition Lecture 6 Outline of Last Lecture I I DNA Function A Protein Synthesis Overview II Genes III Anthropologists and DNA Outline of Current Lecture I Chromosomes II Mendelian Genetics The Laws of Inheritance Current Lecture I Chromosomes Karyotypes show our 23 pairs of chromosomes arranged by size We refer to the first 22 pairs as autosomes All of your genes that determine your size shape etc are located on the first 22 pairs The 23rd pair determines your sex Males have an X and a Y chromosome for their 23rd pair while females have two X chromosomes The centromere is the pinched section of a chromosome Recombination of chromosomes is where genetic material can trade places The four sections separated by the centromere can be swapped amongst chromosomes This causes even more variation Note The key to meiosis is that there are 2 stages of division so that the sex cells become just 23 chromosomes to create gametes During fertilization a gamete from the woman and a gamete from the man come together to form 46 chromosomes of a new person II Mendelian Genetics The Laws of Inheritance These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute Mendel experimented with pea plants Before Mendel s work there was shortcoming in understanding the traits in an offspring It was assumed that each and every one of us were really a blend of our parents For example if you have a really tall dad and really short mom Your height would be right in the middle or the average of their heights This is not the case We are not a middle of theroad blend of our parents We know that because of Mendel s work All the traits we talk about when discussing pea plant are simple traits This means that all these traits are tied to just one place in our karyotype or genome You can only have two variations of these traits Height and weight are NOT simple Mendelian traits If that were the case you



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