NCSU MB 441 - Study Guide for Exam 1 (Lectures 1-4) (7 pages)

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Study Guide for Exam 1 (Lectures 1-4)



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Study Guide for Exam 1 (Lectures 1-4)

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Pages:
7
School:
North Carolina State University
Course:
Mb 441 - Immunology

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Study Guide for Exam I Lectures 1 4 Pathogenic organisms are of four main types viruses bacteria fungi and parasites Our immune defenses begin at the epithelium Barriers to infection on this surface can be divided into three categories mechanical chemical and microbiological One mechanical barrier to infection common to all epithelial surfaces is the joining of cells via tight junctions which leaves no extracellular space through which pathogens can enter Alternatively epithelial surfaces constantly experience a flow of fluid such as perspiration mucus or food that prevent pathogens from accumulating at a particular region of the epithelium Chemical barriers to infection include the release of antimicrobial peptides called defensins as well as lysozyme an enzyme common to tears saliva and mucus that attacks peptidoglycans in bacterial cell walls The creation of an acidic environment such as that found in the stomach is also a chemical barrier to infection Microbiological barriers to infection consist of the normal flora present at each epithelial surface which leave no room for colonization Unlike infectious microorganisms our normal flora is not pathogenic and will not cause disease under normal circumstances Almost all components of the immune system contribute to mechanisms for either detecting or removing pathogens When the epithelium is penetrated usually the first step is to induce inflammation Resident effector cells called macrophages large eaters can phagocytose or engulf invading pathogens as well as secrete inflammatory chemicals called cytokines Inflammation assists the immune response in four ways slowing pathogen spread slowing pathogen growth recruiting immune cells and initiating the adaptive immune response Innate and adaptive immunity have common effector mechanisms for destroying pathogens but differ substantially in other ways Innate immunity responds rapidly in a fixed way reacting to a limited number of specificities and its effectiveness is



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