Pitt BIOSC 1000 - Amino Acids and Primary Structure of Proteins (7 pages)

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Amino Acids and Primary Structure of Proteins



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Amino Acids and Primary Structure of Proteins

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This set of notes goes over the properties of the 20 amino acids. It also looks at the characteristics of primary structure of proteins.


Lecture number:
3
Pages:
7
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
University of Pittsburgh
Course:
Biosc 1000 - Biochemistry

Unformatted text preview:

BIOSC 1000 Lecture 3 Outline of Last Lecture 1 Biochemistry of Water 2 The pH scale 3 Acid Strength Outline of Current Lecture 1 Amino Acids 2 Peptides 3 Characteristics of Primary Structures of Proteins Current Lecture 1 Amino Acids Large biomolecules macromolecules and bioassemblies are built from much smaller building blocks monomers Amino acid protein Nucleotide nucleic acid Lipid lipid bilayer Protein structure and function determined by amino acid sequence One amino acid substitution can change the color of the GFP protein Nutritional View of Amino Acids o Non essential amino acids can be synthesized by mammals Alanine Asparagine Aspartate Glutamate Serine o Conditionally essential amino acids needed for rapid growth Arginine Cysteine Glutamine Glycine Proline Tyrosine o Essential amino acids are only obtained through our diet Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan Valine Amino Acids general structure o R group defines the type of amino acid basic or acidic o Glycine is non chiral 2 H s o Both amino and carboxyl ionized around ph 7 o Alpha amino acids where functional groups covalently attached o Amino group Carboxyl group H atom 20 types of R groups side chains ALWAYS L amino acids glycine is not chiral Amino acids can act as acids or as bases o Free amino acids in aqueous medium may exist as dipolar ions or zwitterions o May act as acids proton donors or bases proton acceptors o Compounds that can be zwitterions not necessarily exactly electrically neutral under all circumstances o AA charge 0 at some point pH pI isoelectric point 19 amino acids have chiral carbon not glycine o caution L form is not always S form o mirror image isomers cannot be superimposed enantiomers o identical physical and chemical properties except their rotation of polarized light o but very different biological properties L alpha AA are predominant form in biology o Side chain atoms are labeled after the alpha carbon greek alphabet o But are



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