IUB BIOL-L 112 - Importance of Carbon in Organic Molecules (2 pages)

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Importance of Carbon in Organic Molecules



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Importance of Carbon in Organic Molecules

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Lecture number:
4
Pages:
2
Type:
Lecture Note
School:
Indiana University, Bloomington
Course:
Biol-L 112 - Foundations of Biology: Biological Mechanisms

Unformatted text preview:

BIOL L 112 1st Edition Lecture 4 Outline of Last Lecture I Four Emergent Properties of Water Continued A Water Expands Upon Freezing B Water is a Versatile Solvent II Acids and Bases Outline of Current Lecture I Carbon Bonding II Hydrocarbons III Isomers A Importance of Enantiomers IV Functional groups A Seven Important Functional Groups Current Lecture I Carbon is responsible for much of the diversity in life and plays a large part in molecules such as proteins fats carbohydrates and nucleic acids There are 6 electrons and protons present in a neutral carbon atom Carbon has 4 valence electrons unpaired electrons required to complete the atom s outermost shell Because carbon has 4 valence electrons it can form 4 covalent bonds When carbon bonds covalently with atoms the 3 D shape of the molecule is important for its function Four major atoms that make up organic molecules are carbon nitrogen oxygen and hydrogen II Hydrocarbons are molecules composed only of non polar covalent bonds between carbon and hydrogen They can vary in length and shape and they are NOT prevalent in living organisms Hydrocarbons are very hydrophobic because of their non polar characteristics They are important because they are able to react and release very large amounts of energy III Isomers are defined as compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties Three types of isomers are structural isomers cis trans isomers and enantiomers Structural isomers have the same molecular formula but have different covalent arrangements of their atoms Cis trans isomers have the same arrangements but differ in spatial arrangements around a double bond These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor s lecture GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes not as a substitute A Enantiomers are mirror images of each other and contain an asymmetric carbon atom This means that the carbon atom is bonded to 4 different atoms or groups of atoms Even



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