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UGA BIOL 1108 - Evolution

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BIOL 1108 1nd Edition Lecture 3 Outline of Last Lecture I. In the News: Why have Liberian riot police and soldiers used scrap wood and barbed wire to seal off 50,000 people inside the West Point slum in the capital city of Monrovia?II. Scientific TheoriesA. Jan Baptista van HelmontB. Francesco RediIII. The earliest living entities on Earth utilized a simpler type of biochemistry than do today’s cells. A. ProtocellB. RNA moleculeIV. Last Universal Common AncestorA. Symbiosis= living togetherB. Bacterial Gene Exchange- Transformation- Transduction-Conjugation V. Evolution is random A. Evolution is the product of two opposing forces- RandomThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Non randomOutline of Current Lecture I.In the NewsII. Gene Duplication and Divergence A.GeneticsB.HemoglobinC.Types: Subfunctionalization, Pseudogenes, and NeofunctionalizationIII.Do monotremes and marsupials have the genes for fetal hemoglobin?IV.ExtinctionA.CausesB.Mass ExtinctionsV.EvolutionA.Macro vs. MicroB.SpeciesC.Types of SpeciationCurrent LectureI. In the News: Why were authorities handing out bottled water in Toledo, Ohio in earlyAugust of 2014?A. An algea bloom of mircocystis aeruginosa spread in Lake Erie and contaminated Ohio’s water supply. The cyanobacteria is toxic and can cause multiple organ failure/ neurological deficits. II. Gene Duplication and Divergence A. Genetics- If two copies of the same gene exist then one, can be changed and mutated without affecting the function of the other.- There is overwhelming evidence of multiple genes, parts of chromosomes, even entire genomes having undergone duplication. This allows one gene to undergo undirected mutation while the other functional copy remains unchanged.B. Hemoglobin- The globin gene family has been studied extensively and shows the remarkable relationship between gene duplication/divergence and the evolution of proteins with new functions.- Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than does maternal hemoglobin. A necessary thing for placental mammals.C. Types of gene divergence- Major source of gene variability- Subfunctionalization: partial loss of gene function- Pseudogenes: degeneration- Neofunctionalization: give rise to modified or new functionsIII. Do monotremes and marsupials have the genes for fetal hemoglobin?- The earliest placental mammals must have had a gene for a globin protein that was similar to the fetal sub-unit γ-globin.- Duplication of globin genes is widespread among the mammals and can be used to infer their evolutionary history. This is known as a phylogenetic approach.IV. ExtinctionA. Causes- The primary cause of species extinction is An environment that changes too quickly with too little genetic diversity in a population to keep up with the change.- Extinction correlates with environmental change- Gradual environmental change= evolution- Rapid environmental change= extinctionB. Mass Extinctions- The extinction of a large number of species within a relatively short period of geological time1. End Ordovician ( 439 mya) 2. Late Devonian (367 mya)3. End Permian (245 mya)4. End Triassic (208 mya)5. End Cretaceous (65 mya)- Must be 75% extinct to be consideredV. EvolutionA. Macro vs. Micro- Macroevolution: any evolutionary change at or above the level of species- Microevolution: any evolutionary change below the level of species- Macroevolution is thought to be the combined effects of micro evolutionary processes- Accumulated genetic changes can result in existing genes or structures becoming modified into new structures (e.g. scales into feathers). In this waynew functions arise and can be selected for.B. Species- is a taxonomic category, just like “genus” and “family”.- to describe the biological cohesiveness and relatedness of the members of that group.- A group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed withone another to produce fertile offspring.C. Types of Speciation- Allopatric speciation: A physical geographic barrier that prevents interbreeding and leads to genetic isolation.- Sympatric speciation: Genetic isolation occurs within a population despite thelack of a physical


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