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Scaling of Analog-to-Digital Converters into Ultra-Deep-Submicron CMOS



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Submitted to CICC 2005 IEEE 2005 CUSTOM INTEGRATED CIRCUITS CONFERENCE Scaling of Analog to Digital Converters into Ultra Deep Submicron CMOS Y Chiu 1 B Nikoli 2 and P R Gray 2 1 2 Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley Abstract Technology Divergence with Scaling This paper presents the opportunities and challenges for scaling A D converters into ultra deep submicron CMOS technologies With faster transistors and better matching the trend is to migrate into higher sample rates with lower resolutions Limited dynamic range at low supply voltages remains the utmost challenge for high resolution Nyquist converters and oversampling will become the dominant technique in this arena in the future Linearity correction with digital calibration is also becoming prevalent as the efficiency of calibration circuitry improves Technology scaling doubles the density of digital logic every 2 3 years Digital circuits have additionally benefited from scaling through increased operating frequencies and lower power consumption Scaling to 90nm CMOS technology and beyond is characterized by limited power To minimize the dissipation by balancing the switching and leakage power digital systems choose the appropriate supply voltages and transistor types Current foundry offerings are characterized by several thin oxide devices with different implant controlled thresholds and supply voltages that are scaled below the reliability dictated levels Furthermore the same process usually offers thick oxide I O devices Analog functions can be implemented using either thin or thick oxide devices the thick oxide devices enjoy the benefit of a larger dynamic range DR and the thin oxide devices harvest a higher operation frequency This trend will continue in the future as predicted by ITRS Fig 1 87 Recent requirements to control the digital circuit leakage have slowed down the transistor



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