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Presentation on Perception Consciousness and Attention Nicole Bello School Psychology PSY 7421 Cognitive Affective Psychology Capella University Dr Isaac G Martinez Introduction to Perception According to Sternberg 2016 perception is explained as how people interpret the stimuli and sensations It is a process in which people translate sensory impressions into a coherent view of the world around them When a person s sense receptors receive information proximal stimulation occurs and the person is able to perceive an object Sternberg 2016 Introduction to Perception The way people interpret information becomes their reality and will dictate their behaviors beliefs and actions Perceptual illusions also suggests that sometimes our senses are not always what we perceive We take available sensory information and transform it to develop mental representations that we already know from our own viewpoints Sternberg 2016 Theoretical Background to Perception There are two main types of theories used to help us understand perception Sternberg 2016 Top Down theories is explained by cognitive processes that includes a person s already existent knowledge and their prior expectations of influence such as beliefs and understanding People can be aware of these and in other circumstances not be conscious of this awareness Sternberg 2016 Bottom up theories explain perception as starting with the stimuli of the visual appearance of something This is a data driven stimulus For example when you look at a vehicle the light information transfers to your brain and processes the information Sternberg 2016 Application of Perception Top Down Processing Since your perceptions are influenced by expectations existing beliefs and understanding In some cases you are aware of these influences but in other instances this process occurs without conscious awareness Cherry 2020 Example Imagine that you are driving down an unfamiliar street and you see a sign The sign has several missing letters but you re still able to read it Why Because you use top down processing and rely on your existing knowledge to make an educated guess about what the sign says Cherry 2020 Application of Perception Bottom Up Processing Bottom up processing is an explanation for perception that involves starting with an incoming stimulus and working upwards until a representation of the object is formed in our minds This process suggests that our perceptual experience is based entirely on the sensory stimuli that we piece together using only data that is available from our senses Cherry 2020 Introduction to Consciousnes s Consciousness is the quality or state of being aware of an external object or something within oneself such as thoughts feelings memories or sensations It has also been defined in the following ways sentience awareness subjectivity the ability to experience or to feel wakefulness having a sense of selfhood and the executive control system of the mind Calabr Cacciola Bramanti Milardi 2015 Theoretical Background to Consciousness Consciousness is dependent on the brainstem and thalamus for arousal Calabr et al 2015 Research on consciousness has focused on understanding the neuroscience behind our conscious experiences Scientists have even utilized brain scanning technology to seek out specific neurons that might be linked to different conscious events Cherry 2020 Theoretical Background to Consciousness We can explore consciousness from a neuroscience perspective It is believed that interactions between the cortex and the thalamus allow individuals to become aware of external and internal stimuli Calabr et al 2015 An interaction between arousal states and conscious awareness exists allowing arousal and awareness to influence each other at different times and under different circumstances Arousal determines the existence of conscious awareness and during states of high arousal awareness takes over Calabr et al 2015 Application of Consciousness Conscious awareness allows us to monitor our interactions with the environment to link our past and present experiences and thereby sense a continuous thread of experience and to control and plan for future actions Cherry 2020 Your conscious experiences are constantly shifting and changing For example in one moment you may be focused on reading this article Your consciousness may then shift to the memory of a conversation you had earlier with a co worker Next you might notice how uncomfortable your chair is or maybe you are mentally planning dinner Cherry 2020 Application of Consciousness States of consciousness play an important role in our everyday experience When you re conscious of experience you know what it s like to have that experience It can also mean being attuned to the present moment in the here and now Cherry 2019 Likewise things that the conscious mind wants to keep hidden from awareness are repressed into the unconscious mind While we are unaware of these feelings thoughts urges and emotions the unconscious mind could still have an influence on our behavior Introduction to Attention Attention is the means by which we actively process a limited amount of information from the enormous amount of information available through our senses our stored memories and our other cognitive processed It includes both conscious and unconscious processes Sternberg 2016 Theoretical Background to Attention Haladjian and Montemayor 2015 discuss the relationship between consciousness and attention through theoretical considerations about evolution According to the authors attention is considered the selective filtering of perceptive information Likewise attention requires selection short term memory contents and the kind of cognitive processing that can be defined functionally We pay attention in various ways Application of Attention The type of attention you require depends on your level of awareness and how many activations you need to respond The Four Types of Attention 2019 Focalized Attention Alternatin g Divided Sustained Application of Attention Focalized attention often takes place when we block out certain features of our environment and focus on one particular feature Divided attention occurs when we are paying attention to two things at once we are using divided attention Sustained attention occurs when we can concentrate on a task event or feature in our environment for a prolonged period of time Alternating attention involves the ability to change the focus of your attention and switch

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CAPELLA PSY 7421 - Presentation on Perception, Consciousness and Attention

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