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Databases Presented by Abigail Atiwag Databases are structured collections of data that are organized and stored in a way that enables efficient retrieval insertion updating and deletion of data Here are key topics related to databases Relational Databases Relational Model Data is organized into tables with rows and columns Tables have keys that establish relationships between them SQL Structured Query Language Standard language for managing relational databases Used for querying data creating tables defining relationships and performing operations like INSERT UPDATE DELETE and JOIN Database Design Entity Relationship ER Modeling Design technique to represent entities attributes relationships and constraints in a database schema Normalization Process of organizing data to minimize redundancy and dependency typically through normalization forms e g 1NF 2NF 3NF Data Integrity Ensuring accuracy consistency and validity of data through constraints e g primary keys foreign keys unique constraints Database Management Systems DBMS Types of DBMS Relational DBMS e g MySQL PostgreSQL Oracle NoSQL DBMS e g MongoDB Cassandra Redis NewSQL DBMS and cloud based DBMS e g Amazon RDS Google Cloud SQL Azure SQL Database Functions of DBMS Data Storage Data Retrieval Data Manipulation Concurrency Control Security Backup and Recovery User Management SQL Concepts and Operations Data Definition Language DDL SQL commands for creating altering and dropping database objects such as tables indexes views and constraints Data Manipulation Language DML SQL commands for inserting updating deleting and querying data in tables e g SELECT INSERT UPDATE DELETE Data Control Language DCL SQL commands for managing user access and permissions e g GRANT REVOKE Database Architecture Client Server Architecture Separation of database server managing data storage and processing and client applications interacting with users and sending receiving data Three Tier Architecture Presentation layer user interface application layer business logic and data layer database server for scalable and modular systems ACID Properties Atomicity Consistency Isolation and Durability ensure transactional reliability and data integrity in database operations Database Indexing and Optimization Indexes Data structures e g B trees hash indexes that improve query performance by enabling faster data retrieval based on indexed columns Query Optimization Techniques to enhance query performance such as using indexes optimizing SQL queries caching query rewriting and analyzing execution plans NoSQL Databases Types of NoSQL Databases Document oriented e g MongoDB Key value stores e g Redis Column family stores e g Cassandra and Graph databases e g Neo4j Use Cases NoSQL databases are suitable for handling unstructured or semi structured data high scalability distributed systems real time applications and big data analytics Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence Data Warehouse Centralized repository for storing and analyzing historical data from multiple sources for decision making and reporting purposes ETL Extract Transform Load Process of extracting data from various sources transforming it into a unified format and loading it into a data warehouse OLAP Online Analytical Processing Analytical queries and multidimensional analysis for business intelligence data mining and reporting Database Security and Compliance Access Control User authentication authorization roles and privileges to restrict unauthorized access to data Encryption Data encryption at rest storage and in transit network to protect sensitive information from unauthorized disclosure Auditing and Monitoring Logging database activities monitoring performance detecting anomalies and auditing for compliance with regulations e g GDPR HIPAA PCI DSS Distributed Databases and Replication Distributed Database Systems Database systems spread across multiple nodes or locations providing scalability fault tolerance and distributed processing Database Replication Copying and synchronizing data across multiple database instances for redundancy high availability disaster recovery and load balancing Database Backup and Recovery Backup Strategies Full backups incremental backups differential backups and snapshot backups to protect data against data loss corruption or disasters Recovery Techniques Point in time recovery transaction logs database snapshots rollback operations and disaster recovery planning Database Migration and Integration Database Migration Moving data and schemas between different database platforms or versions ensuring data consistency integrity and compatibility Data Integration Combining data from disparate sources e g databases APIs files through ETL processes data pipelines data lakes and data integration tools Databases play a crucial role in storing managing and accessing data for applications businesses organizations and various domains Understanding database concepts design principles management practices and technologies is essential for developers database administrators DBAs data engineers and anyone working with data driven systems and applications THANK YOU

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SLU CSCI 371 - Databases: Managing and Organizing Data Efficiently

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