Environmental Studies Notes

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Environmental Studies Notes Environment and its Components Living Components Biotic factors Plants animals and microorganisms Interdependent relationships Symbiosis parasitism competition predation Food chains and food webs Non Living Components Abiotic factors Water sunlight air soil temperature and weather Role in supporting life Nutrient cycling energy flow Impact of changes on ecosystems Environmental Education in the 21st Century Importance Enhancing awareness and understanding of environmental Encouraging sustainable lifestyles and attitudes Empowering students to be environmental stewards issues Key Topics Environmental history and science Multidisciplinary approach Contemporary environmental challenges Environmental Protection Act of 1986 in India Overview Objectives Prevent and control environmental pollution protect nature and wildlife Key provisions Strict liability for environmental damage public participation and environmental impact assessments Global Environmental Bodies and Protocols UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Objective Prevent dangerous human interference with climate Parties 197 countries Paris Agreement Aim Limit warming to well below 2 C pursue efforts for 1 5 C Scope Mitigation adaptation finance technology and capacity building Environmentalism History Early Beginnings Late 19th century Industrial revolution urbanization conservation movements Early 20th century Silent Spring earthrise EPA Modern Environmentalism 1960s 1970s Earth Day clean air and water acts EPA established 1980s Present Expansion of concepts growing global awareness sustainable development Environmental Institutes and their Role Examples Environmental Protection Agencies US EPA India EPA National Parks and Wildlife Services National Park Service Universities and Research Institutions MIT UC Berkeley Yale WWF Objectives Protect and preserve natural resources Conduct research and educate on environmental issues Implement and enforce environmental laws and policies Environmental Awareness Programs Importance Raise awareness of environmental issues Encourage sustainable behaviors Mobilize public support for environmental protection Examples Earth Day World Environment Day Local environmental events and community initiatives

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Environmental Studies Notes

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