TAMU GEOG 203 - Essentials of Geography

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Topic 1 Essentials of Geography GEOG 203 Planet Earth 1 The Science of Geography 2 Earth Systems Concepts 3 Location and Time on Earth 4 Maps Scales and Projections 5 Remote Sensing and GIS GEOG 203 Planet Earth 1 The Science of Geography R Greek term Geography geo Earth graphein to write a method not a body of knowledge R Method spatial analysis characteristics of physical space its measurement distribution of things within R Five spatial themes GEOG 203 Planet Earth 1 Location Absolute and relative location on Earth Location answers the question where the specific planetary address of a location GEOG 203 Planet Earth GEOG 203 Planet Earth 2 Region Areas having uniform characteristics how they form and change their relation to other regions 3 Movement Communication movement circulation migration and diffusion across Earth s surface Global interdependence links all regions and places GEOG 203 Planet Earth 4 Place Tangible and intangible living and nonliving characteristics that make each place unique No two places on Earth are exactly alike GEOG 203 Planet Earth 5 Human Earth Relationships Include resource exploitation hazard perception and environmental pollution and modification GEOG 203 Planet Earth 1 Location 2 Region 3 Movement 4 Place 5 Human Earth Relationships Isaac 2012 GEOG 203 Planet Earth Geographic Continuum Synthesis holistic view GEOG 203 Planet Earth 2 Earth Systems Concepts R Systems theory any ordered set of interrelated components and their attributes can be made up of sub systems A Open systems have inputs outputs energy and matter not self contained virtually all systems are open B Closed systems no external influences shut off from surroundings GEOG 203 Planet Earth R System feedbacks outputs that influence the system to discourage or encourage further outputs Negative feedbacks Positive feedbacks GEOG 203 Planet Earth High Latitude Meltponds Positive Feedback GEOG 203 Planet Earth System fluctuates around a stable average and maintains same operational level Steady State Equilibrium System fluctuates around a stable average but exhibits and overall trend Increasing Trend Meta Stable Equilibrium Dynamic Equilibrium Decreasing Trend Threshold Tipping point GEOG 203 Planet Earth What Are Earth s Systems Atmosphere Biosphere Hydrosphere Lithosphere GEOG 203 Planet Earth 3 Location and Time on Earth R Dimensions R Latitude Geographic zones R Longitude Prime Meridian standard time GEOG 203 Planet Earth Spherical Planet Earth s Dimensions Oblate ellipsoid Geoidal bulge 12 756 km 7926 mi Geoidal bulge North Pole 1 2 7 1 4 k m Equator 7 9 0 0 m i South Pole Cause Rotation GEOG 203 Planet Earth Geographic Grid R Latitude and Longitude Degrees minutes seconds D N S E W 0 to 180 lon or 0 to 90 lat 00 to 59 00 to 59 GEOG 203 Planet Earth Latitude R Angular distance north or south of the equator measured from the center of Earth Runs east to west on maps globes Parallel to the equator 0 Increases northward and southward North Pole 90 N South Pole 90 S GEOG 203 Planet Earth Latitude R Latitudes are parallel Lines of equal latitude are called parallels GEOG 203 Planet Earth Latitudinal Geographic Zones 66 5 N Arctic Circle 23 5 N Tropic of Cancer Tropics 23 5 S Tropic of Capricorn 66 5 S Antarctic Circle GEOG 203 Planet Earth Longitude R Angular distance east or west of a point on the Earth s surface measured from the center of Earth Measured relative to the prime meridian 0 arbitrarily designated to be Greenwich England Run north to south on maps globes Lines of equal longitude are called meridians GEOG 203 Planet Earth Longitude R Meridians are not parallel to each other GEOG 203 Planet Earth Latitude Longitude Grid R Meridians make right angles with parallels GEOG 203 Planet Earth Latitude Longitude Variability 1 latitude always 69 mi 1 longitude varies 0 69 mi GEOG 203 Planet Earth Prime Meridian and Standard Time R Prime meridian also the standard for time Greenwich Mean Time GMT Universal Time R Time Zones what do we already know Earth rotates 360 in 24 hours 1 hour 1 time zone 360 24 hours 15 wide time zone extends 7 5 on either side of a central meridian It gets later going east earlier going west R National political boundaries distort the time zones GEOG 203 Planet Earth Prime Meridian and Standard Time GEOG 203 Planet Earth International Date Line R Arbitrarily designated R Opposite the prime meridian R No matter what time of day you cross it the date changes R West side is always one day ahead later lose a day Monday Sunday GEOG 203 Planet Earth 4 Maps Scales and Projections R Map generalized view of an area seen from above and reduced in size R Scale ratio of map units to ground units 1 2 Representative Fraction Graphic Scale R Projection process of transforming spherical Earth to flat map GEOG 203 Planet Earth GEOG 203 Planet Earth GEOG 203 Planet Earth Map projection Mercator cylindrical projection https thetruesize com GEOG 203 Planet Earth Projections R Equal area or true shape Can t have both on the same map R If you want to have equal area have to stretch and shear parallels and meridians are no longer at right angles R If you want true shape scale actually varies from region to region across the map Correct projection depends on the intended use GEOG 203 Planet Earth Projections Cylindrical Projection Planar Projection Conic Projection GEOG 203 Planet Earth 5 Remote Sensing R Gathering of information about objects surfaces that are not in direct physical contact aircraft spacecraft satellites ships etc R RS instruments see different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum humans only see visible spectrum RS can also see wavelengths in the ultraviolet infrared and or microwave range GEOG 203 Planet Earth Satellites R Three types of orbits 1 Geostationary pace the Earth s rotation speed and remain parked over the same location usually the equator 2 Polar Rotate north south around Earth as Earth spins under it Orbit once every 90 minutes 3 Sun synchronous Like polar orbiters but they shift their track slightly 1 every day so that they re always in daylight GEOG 203 Planet Earth Geostationary Orbit Polar Orbit Sun Synchronous Orbit GEOG 203 Planet Earth http www youtube com watch v 2Gf eNo5lAo GEOG 203 Planet Earth https www youtube com watch v sj7zsGkpZxg GEOG 203 Planet Earth https www youtube com watch v YEby2ioHRHM GEOG 203 Planet Earth Two Types of Remote Sensing 1 Active Remote Sensing Provides their own energy and actively sends a beam of energy


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TAMU GEOG 203 - Essentials of Geography

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