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Lecture 2 A P Review Neuromechanics is defined as A The study of medicine and sport B The study of the physics of living systems C The study of biomechan6ics and motor control D The study of the neural control of living systems E The study of kinetics and kinematics A sphere has a higher drag coefficient Cd than a cube A True B False Who experiences more aerodynamic dag a Both b Nick c Eliuid Assume Nick Bare s frontal area 2x Eliud Kipchoge s frontal area Eliud s running speed 2x Nick s speed Air density is similar for both there s no wind Anatomy study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another macroscopic microscopic developmental Physiology Study of the function of the structural machinery of the body structure and function are intimately related Selected organ systems skeletal muscular nervous Skeletal system bones cartilage and ligament bones articulate at the joints protects and supports organs provides a store of minerals site of blood cell formation provides lever system that muscles act upon to effect movements Skeleton consists of 206 bones axial centra appendicular peripheral Axial skull vertebral sternum ribs Appendicular femur tibia fibula tarsus metatarsus phalanges Arthrology The junction b w two or more bones is called articulation or a joint Joints are classified by motions they permit diarthrodial freely movable joints that permit motion about one two or three axes Major characteristics Major characteristics bone surfaces covered with articular cartilage joint is surrounded by an articular capsule joint contains synovial fluid for lubrication joint is crossed by multiple ligaments and tendons bursae or tendon sheaths present to reduce friction Uniacial joint hinge elbow patella joints matching convex and concave joint surface collateral ligaments limit motion to one place Biaxial movement in 2 planes no rotation Ex MCP joints MTP joints Tri axial Reciporacal concave and convex surfaces permit rotation about three axes amount of motion determined by joint structure and ligaments EX glenhumeral joint illofemoral joint Major joint motions flection extention dorsio plantar flexion Ab adductin rotation medial lateral Circumduction Think Pair Share Which plane Running Sagital Soccer goalie frontal Dicuscus transverse kayaking transverse or sagital speed skating sagittal and frontal some transverse Cartilage hyaline Covers end of bnes Lubrification fibro cartilage Shock absorbers Breakdown of cartilage abnormal joint spacing bone exposure osteophytes cartilage fragments Ligaments colateral medial and lateral Cruciate anterior and posterior patellar Ligaments and cartilage mechanical properties force vs extension elastic or visco eleastic Stress Work in Work out Faster loading stiffer behavior Ligament tear more likely with fast loading Torque D F D Length of Arm F Force acting on the direction of rotation Door length 1 meter Applied forcer 10 Newtons If the force is constant where in the crankcycle will torqu be the greatest depends on direction down 3 oclock upwards 6 oclock Lever Systems 1st class lever seesaw 2nd class wheel baraol 3rd class Lecture 3 A P 2 A active force production characteristics B stress strain characteristics C neural sensor characteristics D lubricant weeping characteristics E all of these From a biomechanical viewpoint ligaments can be described by their Which is true about bones A Bones articulate at the joints B Bones protect and support organs C Bones provides a store of minerals site of blood cell formation D Bones provides the lever system that muscles act upon to effect movement E All of the above A body rotating in the sagittal plane turns about an axis of rotation that is pointing in the A medial lateral direction B anterior posterior direction C longitudinal plane D vertical direction E cranial direction Torque are our joints efficient 1st class lever Muscular System consists of muscles and tendons major source of heat production provides maintenance posture represent the motors that power movement of the body Types of Muscle Smooth involuntary found in skin organs vessels Cardiac involuntary found in heart Skeletal voluntary found throughout the body produces motion at joints Muscles structure whole muscle fassicle fiber myofibril myofilament Connective tissue epimysium epi on over perimysium peri around endomysium endo within Muscle Structure single muscle cell is called a fiber a fiber is made up of myofibrils arranged in parallel a myofibril is made up of sarcomeres arranged in series sarcomeres are made up of several proteins myofilaments notably actin and myosin Sliding Filament Theory Muscle length change results from the thin actin and thick myosin myofilaments in the sarcomere sliding past each other Cross Bridge Theory Muscle force production results from the myosin heads binding to sites on actin and rotating Requires presence of Ca powered by ATP splitting Force Length Relation muscle force depends on length active myofilament overlap passive stretch of elastic tissues Force velocity relation force drops with increased shortening force increases with lengthening Lecture 4 Mucular System What is the most common lever system in the human body A first class B second class C second order D third class E fourth class An important characteristic of muscle that limits maximal running speed is A the force velocity relation B the force length relation C the sarcoplasmic reticulum D the muscle fiber membrane E the myofibril lattices Kinematics the study of movement in space Kinetics the study of underlying causes of motion explains why we saw the kinematics Motor a device that produces motion Control regulation of how a device functions Basic Technology Motion Capture infrared camera 1000 frames per second 1 millisecond intervals Up to 1000 hz Single camera 2D Multiple cameras 3d Based on retro reflective markers camera see where light reflects sees where body parts are moving Force Platform Measures ground reaction force 3 components GRFx GRFy GRFz Force treadmill had four 3d fource transducers Force pedal GRF and Motion capture together Pressure Systems Presure force per unit area Dynamic pressures change through stance phase Accelerometers measures acceleration Physical activity monitors based on accelerometers Used in PA studies IMU s Accelermeters 3d acceleration Gyroscopes 3d inclination Motion captured outside the lab Electromyography Technique for evaluating and recording the activation signal of


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UMass Amherst KIN 236 - Lecture #2

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