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High Yield DAT Biology Notes How Do I Get a Good Bio Score on the DAT Bootcamp has multiple ways to study bio based on how you learn best We have High Yield Bio Notes Biology Videos Bio Bites question banks and more For content review If you like reading use these notes They serve as a concise reference to everything you need to know for the DAT If you prefer videos watch the Bio Videos They cover the same info and incorporate practice questions Most importantly you have to practice what you ve learned You can practice with the Bio Question Bank and Bio Bites as you progress through biology If you re short on time my 1 recommendation is nishing all the DAT Bootcamp practice tests 1 10 and focusing on learning from the explanations These are the most representative and high yield questions you ll likely see on the DAT Be sure to learn everything in the questions and explanations in the 10 practice tests before you take your DAT Lastly I want Bootcamp to be perfect for you If you have any feedback or questions please email us at team bootcamp com Your feedback is invaluable to improving these notes for future generations of students Happy studying Dr Ari and the DAT Bootcamp team Table of Contents Chapter 1 Molecules and Fundamentals of Biology Chapter 2 Cells and Organelles Chapter 3 Cellular Energy Chapter 4 Photosynthesis Chapter 5 Cell Division Chapter 6 Molecular Genetics Chapter 7 Heredity Chapter 8 Microscopy Lab Techniques Chapter 9 Diversity of Life Chapter 10 Plants Chapter 11 1 Circulatory System Chapter 11 2 Respiratory System Chapter 11 3 Immune System Chapter 11 4 Nervous System Chapter 11 5 Muscular System Chapter 11 6 Skeletal System Chapter 11 7 Endocrine System Chapter 11 8 Digestive System Chapter 11 9 Excretory System Chapter 11 10 Integumentary System Chapter 12 Reproduction and Developmental Biology Chapter 13 Evolution Chapter 14 Ecology Chapter 15 Animal Behavior Recent changelog 9 15 22 Updated information ch 1 and 4 9 22 22 Updated mnemonics ch 6 and 11 10 25 22 Updated information ch 6 and 9 11 7 22 Updated information ch 12 5 11 23 Updated information ch 1 3 9 16 22 25 31 40 48 55 66 71 78 84 89 96 100 103 109 112 115 116 124 129 134 2023 Bootcamp com 2 Chapter 1 Molecules and Fundamentals of Biology Table of Contents Biological Chemistry Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids Biological Hypothesis and Theories Biological Chemistry Basic terminology Matter anything that takes up space and has mass Element a pure substance that has speci c physical chemical properties and can t be broken down into a simpler substance Atom the smallest unit of matter that still retains the chemical properties of the element Molecule two or more atoms joined together Intramolecular forces attractive forces that act on atoms within a molecule Intermolecular forces forces that exist between molecules and a ect physical properties of the substance Monomers single molecules that can potentially polymerize Polymers substances made up of many monomers joined together in chains Carbohydrates Carbohydrates contain carbon hydrogen and oxygen atoms CHO They can come in the form of monosaccharides disaccharides and polysaccharides Monosaccharides are carbohydrate monomers with an empirical formula of CH 2 O n n represents the number of carbons Glucose and fructose are isomers of each other same chemical formula di erent arrangement of atoms Ribose a ve carbon monosaccharide Fructose a six carbon monosaccharide Glucose a six carbon monosaccharide 2023 Bootcamp com Disaccharides contain two monosaccharides joined together by a glycosidic bond It is the result of a dehydration condensation reaction where a water molecule leaves and a covalent bond forms A hydrolysis reaction is the opposite through which a covalent bond is broken by the addition of water Sucrose disaccharide made of glucose fructose Lactose disaccharide made of galactose glucose Maltose disaccharide made of glucose glucose Polysaccharides contain multiple monosaccharides connected by glycosidic bonds to form long polymers Starch form of energy storage for plants and is an alpha bonded polysaccharide Linear starch is called amylose the branched form is amylopectin Bootcamp Mnemonic The word am yl o p ec t in has more branching letters y l p t than am yl ose y l so amylopectin is the more branched form Glycogen form of energy storage in animals and is an alpha bonded polysaccharide It has much more branching than starch CC BY 4 0 Cellulose structural component in plant cell walls and is a beta bonded polysaccharide Linear strands packed rigidly in parallel Chitin structural component in fungi cell walls and insect exoskeletons It is a beta bonded polysaccharide with nitrogen added to each monomer 3 Proteins Protein structure Proteins contain carbon hydrogen oxygen and nitrogen atoms CHON These atoms combine to form amino acids which link together to build polypeptides or proteins A proteome refers to all the proteins expressed by one type of cell under one set of conditions Amino acids are the monomers of proteins and have the structure shown below 1 2 3 4 Primary structure sequence of amino acids connected through peptide bonds Secondary structure intermolecular forces between the polypeptide backbone not R groups due to hydrogen bonding Forms helices or pleated sheets Tertiary structure three dimensional structure due to interactions between R groups Can create hydrophobic interactions based on the R groups Disul de bonds are created by covalent bonding between the R groups of two cysteine amino acids Hydrogen bonding and ionic bonding between R groups also hold together the tertiary structure Quaternary structure multiple polypeptide chains come together to form one protein Protein denaturation describes the loss of protein function and higher order structures Only the primary structure is una ected Proteins will denature as a result of high or low temperatures pH changes and salt concentrations For example cooking an egg in high heat will disrupt the intermolecular forces in the egg s proteins causing it to coagulate Protein functions Protein Function Description Storage Hormones Receptors Structure Immunity Enzymes Reserve of amino acids Signaling molecules that regulate physiological processes Proteins in cell membranes which bind to signal molecules Provide strength and support to tissues hair spider silk Antibodies that protect against foreign substances Regulate rate of chemical reactions CC BY 4 0 There

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SUNY Geneseo EDUC 488 - Biology Notes

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