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1 Unalienable Right It is a special type of right which everyone gets and can t be taken away from you These are rights given to you from birth For example Life liberty and pursuit of happiness 2 Life Liberty the Pursuit of Property Believed as an Unalienable right and should not be taken away without a good reason Life The right to stay alive and live and remain that way unless there is a good reason to do so Liberty Free to make their own choices without being controlled by the government or any king Pursuit of happiness The right to have goals and achieve them freely and remain happy It was changed from the Pursuit of Property to the pursuit of Happiness For clarity and Inclusivity Boarder Meaning Philosophical Inspiration Pursuit of Property right to work earn and acquire possessions 1632 1704 argued that the law of nature obliged all human beings not to harm the life the liberty health limb or goods of another Nature which is a law and has a law of nature to govern It teaches all mankind that being all equal and independent no one ought to harm another 3 John Locke 4 Hammurabi Hammurabi was the Babylonian King nearly 4 000 years ago There is a code of Hammurabi He wanted to create a system and improve his kingdom s laws and wrote a legal document spelling out how certain crimes would be handled However his rules were a little weird and extreme Example If a man breaks into a house they shall kill him and hang him in front of that very breach It can sound harsh but it was in writing meaning the people had to follow it and obey it It was an early milestone towards rule of law 5 Magna Carta The Magna Carta was a rule book in 1215 It was an agreement between a king and some powerful people who did not like or agree with how the king was ruling They wanted the king to treat everyone fairly and if he didn t they would stand up against hi It was an important idea that nobody not even the king is above the law 6 Declaration of the Rights of Man French Revolution Fundamental rights and principles that should be protected and keep a fair society It emphasizes the importance of government and keeping these rights It is an idea that stresses the law should be kept fair The Declaration of the Rights of Man written in 1789 says 1 People are born free and equal Differences should benefit everyone 2 Governments should protect basic rights like freedom and safety 3 The power to make rules comes from the people 4 People can do what they want if it doesn t harm others Laws decide the limits 5 Laws can only stop things that harm society You can do anything not banned by law 6 Everyone can help make the rules All citizens are equal 7 Nobody can be arrested without a good reason and following the rules 8 Punishments must be fair and based on laws made before the crime 9 If someone is arrested they must be treated fairly 10 People can have their own beliefs and opinions as long as they don t break the law 11 People can speak write and print freely but must follow the rules 12 The military is for everyone s protection not for someone s personal gain 13 Everyone must pay their share for public services and government costs 14 Citizens should decide on taxes and know how the money is used 15 Public officials must explain their actions 16 If a country doesn t follow its laws and doesn t separate powers it has no real rules 17 Property is a right It can only be taken for good reasons with fair payment 7 Alewife s advice to Gilgamesh She explains that Enkidu who lives with animals can be tamed and made more human like through companionship and the pleasures of civilization This advice ultimately leads to the friendship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu which is a central theme in the epic 8 A Room of One s Own by Virginia Woolf A Room of One s Own by Virginia Woolf is an essay that says women need their own space and financial freedom to write and express themselves in literature and it highlights how society has historically held women back from achieving this It s an important work in feminist literature 9 Michel de Montaigne He was a French nobleman philosopher and writer who lived from 1533 and 1592 He basically invented the easy as a literary form His best subject was himself and lived and interacted with conditions in his life He was the guy who had a nice room and wrote about himself in his diary He noticed that in order to be happy he needed to think and write He needed his own room and his own space He included his weird thoughts and things that bought him happiness 10 In My Room by the Beach Boys In My Room by the Beach Boys is a song where the singer finds comfort and solace in their own personal space feeling safe and secure in their room It s about finding a peaceful retreat from the outside world Hedonists are people who seek happiness and pleasure as the most important things in life They believe in enjoying life to the fullest and maximizing positive experiences Utilitarians believe that the best action or decision is the one that brings the greatest overall happiness or pleasure to the most people while minimizing suffering They focus on what benefits the majority and aims for the greatest good for the greatest number 11 Hedonists 12 Utilitarians 13 Eudaimonia Eudaimonia is a Greek term that means living a fulfilling and flourishing life It s often associated with happiness but not just momentary pleasure it s about finding long term well being purpose and personal growth 14 Aristotle Aristotle believed that happiness in simple terms is living a good and fulfilling life He thought it s about finding a balance in everything you do and using your abilities to their fullest In other words happiness for Aristotle is about being the best version of yourself and living a meaningful life 15 John Stuart Mill Jeremy Bentham Jeremy Bentham believed that the best actions are those that create the most happiness for the most people He thought pleasure and pain guided our choices John Stuart Mill built on Bentham s ideas saying not all pleasures are equal and that individual freedoms and moral happiness matter too Both helped shape the idea of making society as happy as possible 16 Epicurus Epicurus believed that true happiness comes from being content with simple pleasures and not constantly desiring more He thought that finding joy in what you already have is the key to a satisfying life as constantly seeking more leads to unhappiness For Epicurus it was about enjoying the present rather than

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TEMPLE ENG 0711 - Study Guide

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