Final Exam Study Guide Chapters 4 to 6

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About the Final Tips Lockdown Browser with Camera Required Prior to the Exam Sleep Well 7 8 hours to properly function To prepare a week early before finals study the material each day between now and when you schedule to take the exam Eat Breakfast and consume healthy snacks throughout the day to stay energized ie Snacks low in sugar trail mix popcorn fruit almonds vegetables and hummus hardboiled eggs Try not to overdo it on the caffeine When taking a break from studying walk or run to clear your head If you are not sure of something and need clarification have a question please email the instructor prior to the exam Note To make sure everyone is on the same page all of the content presented on these sheets will be on the final exam Dr Chea is making this clear to save time on both sides because of the current email class and meeting load since the start classes it wouldn t make sense to spend all day answering the same email from the NUSC 1165 sections especially when grading for multiple classes takes time Dr Chea will be using this study guide to prepare the questions for the final exam so that it is fair for the students Students are responsible for going through their notes previous lecture guides and checklists to prepare for the exam and to complete this study guide The instructor or the TA will not post the answers to the guides as these guides are available to help students narrow and retain the information presented in NUSC 1165 throughout the semester The final exam study guide will be updated throughout the week Chapter 4 Carbohydrates Definition and Examples Refined Carbohydrates Unrefined Carbohydrates Structure of a Grain What nutrients are contained in the following structures Nutrients Carbohydrate Classification Monosaccharides and Disaccharides and Polysaccharides Glycogen humans animals starch which includes amylose and amylopectin plants and fiber Endosperm Bran Germ Mouth Stomach Pancreas Small Intestine Large Intestine Carbohydrate Digestion Steps Step Role of Fiber in Digestion Slows nutrient absorption followed by gradual rise of glucose in the blood Metabolic Reactions Breakdown of Carbs Glycolysis Cytoplasm and Anaerobic does not require oxygen Acetyl CoA Formation Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport Chain Mitochondria and Aerobic Aerobic or Anaerobic Description of the Metabolic Process Glycolysis Acetyl CoA Formation Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport Chain Hydrolysis Reactions Condensation Reactions Gluconeogenesis Ketone Body Formation Additional Reactions Discussed in The Carbohydrates Chapter Other Metabolic Reactions Gluconeogenesis Definition Ketone Body Formation Glucose Regulation Role of Insulin vs Glucagon Hormones Difference between Type 1 Type 2 and Gestational Diabetes Fiber Role in protecting against heart disease Figure 4 25 Carbohydrate Recommendations RDA 130 g day adults and children Fiber 25 g for females 38 g for males Four Alternative Sweetners Saccharin Aspartame Sucralose Acesulfame K Lipids Organic molecules that are not soluble in water soluble in fat only Description of Chemical Structure Chapter 5 Lipids Triglyceride Structure Phospholipids Structure Cholesterol Structure Functions of phospholipids and cholesterol Saturated fat vs unsaturated fat What is the difference between Monounsaturated vs Polyunsaturated fat Cis vs trans fat Difference between saturated vs unsaturated fat cis vs trans fat is the process that forms trans fats a Beta oxidation Beta oxidation breaks down fatty acid acetyl CoA b Deamination Removal of Nitrogen Group amino acid acetyl CoA c Hydrogenation Hydrogen atoms added to C C forming trans fat d Glycolysis Breakdown of carbs into pyruvate Please be familiar with the steps of lipid digestion especially the importance of the lipases bile and micelle formation Role of Lipoproteins Chylomicrons VLDL HDL LDL Functions of Lipids Absorption Structure Regulation Role of the adipose tissue in the human body Brain and Nervous System Cell Membrane Structure Phospholipids bound to fatty acid tails Essential fatty acids form eicosanoids that regulate blood pressure blood clotting and inflammation Role of Beta oxidation Risk Factors for Heart Disease and Dietary Lipids that Protect against heart disease Dietary Risk Factors for Heart Disease Dietary Factors that Protect Against Heart Saturated fat Trans fat Sodium Increased sugar intake Increased energy Increased alcohol intake Disease Polyunsaturated Fat Monounsaturated Fat Fiber B Vitamins Antioxidants Moderate Alcohol Role of lipoprotein lipase and hormone sensitive lipase in regards to feasting and fasting Eicosanoids What type of dietary fat are they synthesized from AMDR Recommendations for fat Definition and Examples of Fat Substitutes Sucrose polyester diglycerides Oatrim Nutrim Fat Substitute Sucrose polyester Carbohydrate Based Protein Based Chapter 6 Protein Which of the following distinguishes individual amino acids from each other a Hydrogen atom b Acid Group c Side Chain d Amino Group Essential Amino Acids PVT MT HILL Conditionally Essential Amino Acids Definition Peptide Bonds Definition Chemical Reactions Involving Protein Transamination Deamination Denaturation Enzyme needed for protein digestion Protein Digestion steps Protein Synthesis Transcription vs Translation location type of RNA involved Which of the following proteins contributes to structure a insulin Insulin is a hormone that signals cells to store glucose b lipase Lipase is an enzyme that breaks TG F Acids Glycerol c Hemoglobin Hemoglobin is a transport protein d Collagen Collagen forms the protein framework of bones and teeth tendons Difference between kwashiorkor and marasmus symptoms Nitrogen Balance Negative Nitrogen Balance and Positive Nitrogen Balance Vegetarian Diets lacto ovo lacto pescetarian pollo What foods do they consume Protein Recommendation for Healthy Individuals Incomplete vs Complete Dietary Proteins Phenylketonuria Celiac Disease Monosodium Glutamate Sensitivity Limiting Amino Acids Ammonia and Urea Production Functions of Proteins Structure Protein Examples Enzyme Protein Examples Transport Protein Examples Protection Protein Examples Muscle Protein Examples Hormone Proteins Fluid Balance Regulation Acid Base Balance

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Final Exam Study Guide Chapters 4 to 6

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