Family planning

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Family planning methods Types of contraception 1 The Barrier Approach This form of birth control blocks the sperm from reaching the egg thereby preventing fertilization Examples include male and female condoms diaphragms cervical caps and spermicidal foam These methods are only used during intercourse 2 Hormonal Methods Hormonal birth control inhibits the ovaries from releasing eggs When there is no egg for the sperm to fertilize pregnancy cannot occur Common hormonal approaches include the pill patch and vaginal ring Hormonal implants and injections are also available 3 IUDs There are two kinds of intrauterine devices IUDs hormonal and copper Both are implanted into the uterus and prevent pregnancy by keeping sperm from reaching the egg Hormonal IUDs stop the ovaries from releasing eggs and thicken cervical mucus to impede sperm Copper IUDs release copper ions into the cervix making it an inhospitable environment for sperm 4 The Rhythm Method Couples who rely on the rhythm method avoid having intercourse when the woman is most likely fertile An average woman who menstruates regularly can theoretically only get pregnant for a few days every month Since many factors affect ovulation though this approach is less reliable than the others 5 Surgery Men who want a permanent form of birth control can undergo a vasectomy which keeps the semen free of sperm Likewise women can opt to undergo a tubal litigation which prevents eggs from moving through the fallopian tubes to the uterus I BARRIER METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL 1 CONDOMS A condom is a thin latex or polyurethane sheath The male condom is placed around the erect penis The female condom is placed inside the vagina before intercourse A condom must be worn at all times during intercourse to prevent pregnancy Condoms can be bought in most drug and grocery stores Some family planning clinics offer free condoms You do not need a prescription to get condoms 2 DIAPHRAGM AND CERVICAL CAP A diaphragm is a flexible rubber cup that is filled with spermicidal cream or jelly It is placed into the vagina over the cervix before intercourse to prevent sperm from reaching the uterus It should be left in place for 6 to 8 hours after intercourse Diaphragms must be prescribed by a woman s provider The provider will determine the correct type and size of diaphragm for the woman About 5 to 20 pregnancies occur over 1 year in 100 women using this method depending on proper use A similar smaller device is called a cervical cap Risks include irritation and allergic reactions to the diaphragm or spermicide and increased frequency of urinary tract infection and vaginal yeast infection In rare cases toxic shock syndrome may develop in women who leave the diaphragm in too long A cervical cap may cause an abnormal Pap test VAGINAL SPONGE Vaginal contraceptive sponges are soft and contain a chemical that kills or disables sperm The sponge is moistened and inserted into the vagina to cover over the cervix before intercourse The vaginal sponge can be bought at your pharmacy without a prescription II HORMONAL METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL Some birth control methods use hormones They will have either both an estrogen and a progestin or a progestin alone You need a prescription for most hormonal birth control methods Both hormones prevent a woman s ovary from releasing an egg during her cycle They do this by affecting the levels of other hormones the body makes Progestins help prevent sperm from making their way to the egg by making mucus around a woman s cervix thick and sticky Types of hormonal birth control methods include Birth control pills These may contain both estrogen and progestin or only progestin Implants These are small rods implanted beneath the skin They release a continuous dose of hormone to prevent ovulation Progestin injections such as Depo Provera that are given into the muscles of the upper arm or buttocks once every 3 months The skin patch such as Ortho Evra is placed on your shoulder buttocks or other place on the body It releases a continuous dose of hormones The vaginal ring such as NuvaRing is a flexible ring about 2 inches 5 centimeters wide It is placed into the vagina It releases the hormones progestin and estrogen Emergency or morning after contraception This medicine can be bought without a prescription at your drugstore III IUD INTRAUTERINE DEVICE The IUD is a small plastic or copper device placed inside the woman s uterus by her provider Some IUDs release small amounts of progestin IUDs may be left in place for 3 to 10 years depending on the device used IUDs can be placed at almost any time IUDs are safe and work well Fewer than 1 out of 100 women per year will get pregnant using an IUD IUDs that release progestin may be for treating heavy menstrual bleeding and reducing cramps They may also cause periods to stop completely IV PERMANENT METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROL These methods are best for men women and couples who feel certain they do not want to have children in the future They include vasectomy and tubal ligation These procedures can sometimes be reversed if a pregnancy is desired at a later time However the success rate for reversal is not high V BIRTH CONTROL METHODS THAT DO NOT WORK VERY WELL Withdrawal of the penis from the vagina before ejaculation can still result in pregnancy Some semen often escapes before full withdrawal It can be enough to cause a pregnancy Douching shortly after sex is not likely to work The sperm can make their way past the cervix within 90 seconds Douching is never recommended because it can cause infections in the uterus and tubes Breastfeeding Despite the myths women who are breastfeeding can become pregnant

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Family planning

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