UNCG KIN 291 - KIN 291 Test 3 Review Sheet

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KIN 291 Test 3 Review Sheet Head and Anterior Neck Anatomy 1 What is the skull Why is it important Protects the brain which contains the nervous system and sense systems a Identify and describe the following Facial aspect cranial bones frontal zygomatic septum Mandible i What is the orbit Eye sockets in the facial part of the skull or the components within this area b Identify and describe the following lateral aspect cranial bones parietal temporal i What is external acoustic meatus Pass way made of bone and skin that leads to the tympanic membrane ii What is the mastoid process iii Where is the coronal suture Posterior and inferior to the ear and filled with sinuses or mastoid cells The suture on top of the skull that separates the frontal bone and parietal bone c Identify and describe the following occipital aspect cranial bones occiput i What is the occipital condyle ii What is the sagittal suture Two rounded knobs on the occipital bone that serves as a joint for C1 Suture on top of the head that separates left and right halves of the parietal bone d Identify and describe the following superior aspect cranial bones frontal temporal i Where are the coronal and sagittal sutures Both are on top of the head the coronal separates frontal and parietal bone and the sagittal separates the halves of the parietal bone e Identify and describe the following inferior aspect cranial bones occiput sphenoid vomer i Identify and describe these key anatomical landmarks 1 Foramen magnum mastoid process optic canal Foramen magnum is a hole on the inferior part of the skull that is a place for the spinal cord to travel Mastoid process is inferior and superior to ear filled with sinuses Optic canal is the canal that serves for signals to travel from the eye to the brain f Hyoid bone describe and identify g Inferior to the skull in the front of the neck that supports the larynx Identify and describe the sinus system of the skull Connected system of hollow cavities throughout the entire skull h What is a fontanelle Who has them Why are they important Areas of fibrous connective tissues that cover unfused sutures in infants and allow flexibility to the skull during birth 2 Describe the scalp 3 Cranial meninges Soft tissue protection Skin Connective tissue Aponeurosis Loose connective tissue Pericranium i Describe the relationship of key vascular structures to the cranium spinal meninges and brain tissue Cover brain deep to cranial bones and enclose the brain in its fluid filled cavity ii What is the difference between an epidural and subdural hematoma Epidural hematoma is blood between inner surface of skull and dura mater while a subdural hematoma the bleeding is below the dura mater iii What is hydrocephalus Excess CSF production that puts more pressure on the fontanelles 4 Brain anatomy a What are the 4 main subdivisions of the brain Cerebrum Diencephalon Brainstem Cerebellum In general terms how is the brain constructed right to left The brain looks the same and is constructed the same on both sides Identify and describe general function of the following lobes of the brain b c Thought Voluntary Movement Speech Motor 1 3 of the area of the brain i Frontal ii Temporal iii Parietal Memory Auditory Function Sensory and location due to senses around you iv Occipital Visual perception d What is the cerebral cortex Why is it important What structures primarily compose the cortex Gray matter of ceuron cell bodies No fiber tracts and executive functioning capability i Describe the homunculus of the cortex Maps body part to area of the brain that processes information Identify and describe the function of the following lobes of the cerebrum e Sensory for touch and smell i Parietal ii Occipital Eye sight iii Frontal iv Temporal Hearing Control movement f Describe the organization of white to grey matter in the cerebrum The neurons in the grey matter are connected to other parts of the brain by a layer of nerve fibers called white matter which lies below the surface of the grey matter The grey matter surrounding the cerebrum is known as the cortex of the brain Identify and describe the function of cerebellum Motor Control Identify and describe the function of the Diencephalon structures g h i Thalamus Sensory center and motor output ii Hypothalamus major center for homeostasis 1 Pituitary gland Endocrine Controller i Identify and describe the function of the brainstem structures i Pons Unconscious process and jobs you do when waking up ii Medulla Oblongata Controls breathing and heart rate iii Cranial Nerves 5 Nervous system overview Be able to structurally track the CNS from the spinal nerve roots to Send electric signals between brain face neck and torso the cortex 6 Facial Anatomy a Describe the bony anatomy of the facial region All facial bones of the skull i What is the bony orbit of the face How does a fracture of this area potential affect eye movement b Describe and identify the external structures of the anterior eye c What is the lacrimal apparatus d Describe and identify the following structures of the eye i Conjunctiva ii Sclera iii Cornea iv Pupil v vi Aqueous Humor vii Lens viii Retina Iris 1 Rods and Cones ix Optic nerve x Vitreous humor 1 Floaters what are they e Describe Cataracts and Glaucoma f Describe how an orbital fracture may affect eye movement 7 Describe and identify the Temporomandibular Joint i What kind of joint is it ii How does it function iii What can cause TMJ pain 8 Ear Anatomy auditory canal a Describe and identify the outer ear structures External ear external acoustic meatus b Describe and identify the middle ear structures Tympanic membrane ossicles of ear malleus incus stapes Pharyngotympanic tube i How do ear drainage tubes work c Describe and identify the inner ear structures Cochlear organ Vestibular organ d Describe the process by which we perceive sound from the sound waves to where in the brain sound perception occurs 9 Nose and Nasal Cavity Anatomy a What are the functions of the Nose and Nasal Cavities b Describe the external nose c Describe the nasal cavities generally d How do we perceive odors Where does this occur e Describe and Identify the Nasal septum i What is a deviated septum f What function do the paranasal sinuses serve 10 Oral Region a What 2 spaces make up the oral cavity What lines the oral cavity b Describe the components of a typical tooth i How many primary teeth do we have Adult c The tongue is composed primarily of which type of tissue i

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