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Southern opposition to Reconstruction attempts and the North's reaction.

Lecture number:
Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
Hist 106 - History Of The U S

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HIST 106 1st Edition Lecture 3 Outline of Last Lecture 1. Unresolved Questions / Issues after the Civil War 2. Reconstruction • Early Ideas under Lincoln • Presidential Reconstruction (1865-1867) 3. Andrew Johnson 4. Debates over the Treatment of Former Confederates 5. The Black Codes • Radical (or Congressional) Reconstruction (1867-1877) 6. Goals 7. The Freedmen’s Bureau 8. Reconstruction Acts of 1867 9. Johnson’s Impeachment 10. Mixed Record 11. African Americans Experience Reconstruction • Meanings & Realities of “Freedom” Outline of Current Lecture 1. Redemption: Opposition to Reconstruction in the South • Strong Southern Dislike of Reconstruction Governments • Terrorism to Recreate & Reinforce White Supremacy • Establishment of a New Race and Class-Based Labor System: Sharecropping 2. Retreat: Northern Retreat from Reconstruction • Depression of 1873 3. Economic Issues Take Precedence • Pessimism over the South’s Ability to “Reconstruct” & to Treat African Americans Equally 4. Fate of Southern Reconstruction Governments & the “Mississippi Plan” • Presidential Election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 Current Lecture Redemption Opposition to Reconstruction in the South • Strong Southern Dislike of Reconstruction Governments • These were a humiliating reminder of defeat • They were strongly against northern military occupation • Never more than about 7k troops stationed in the reconstruction areas • These governments started spending money, which meant rising taxes and state debt • Democrats accused them of corruption and irresponsible spending • Also felt federal governments gave special privileges to blacks • Most whites simply could not accept the idea of blacks as equals • Had to endure major cultural shif • When last of troops lef, major white backlash • Terrorism to Recreate & Reinforce White Supremacy • Wanted to put blacks back into pre war status • KKK (Ku Klux Klan) • Founded in TN in winter of 1866 by 6 confederate vets • Supposedly a social club • Secret meetings, elaborate ceremonies, and members wore disguises • Soon took on more sinister nature and become terrorist group of the democrats • Original group had high society members (elite of white southern society) • Nathan Bedford Forrest (Cofounder) • John B. Gordon (Georgia Klan Leader) • Loose knit umbrella for independent local groups that shared common goal (white supremacy) and common tactics • Targeted blacks that had gained power (land owners and those that stood up to plantation owners) • Burned black freedom symbols (churches, schools) • Wanted to keep blacks out of politics • Broke up coalition of republican southerners • Carpetbaggers and scallywags were also targets • Terrorism devastated republican party • Response: Grant and congress in 1870-1871 enforce civil rights acts • Congress enacts “KKK Act” allowing federal government to intervene when states fail to properly persecute those that were keeping others from voting and denying rights • KKK reign was short lived afer this • Klan fades away, until revived during 19-teens • Other white supremacy groups emerged with the same goal: to restore white power in southern state • Establishment of a ...

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