VALENCIA OST 1335C - Grammar

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Term Definition Conjunctive Adverbs Words that indicate that the following clause is an independent clause they also work as transitional devices allowing the writer to indicate the relationship between ideas in independent clauses Some conjunctive adverbs use more than one word in fact in contrast as a result that is Coordinating Conjunction A word that joins words or word groups with the same grammatical Structure Dependent Clause A group of words that may contain a subject and a verb but does not contain a complete thought a dependent clause is not a sentence Independent Clause Consists of a subject and a verb and expresses a complete thought Predicate A verbal phrase that shows the action or indicates a state of being for the subject of the Sentence Subject A noun or pronoun that controls the verb in a sentence Subordinating Conjunction Conjunctions used to introduce dependent clauses A simple sentence is a single independent clause An independent clause consists of a subject and a predicate and expresses a complete thought Simple sentences are sometimes referred to as complete sentences A dependent clause may look like an independent clause because it contains a subject and a verb but a dependent clause doesn t express a complete thought A sentence fragment occurs when a dependent clause is punctuated as a simple sentence To fix the fragment you can remove the subordinating conjunction or you can add a comma and an independent clause to form a complete thought Common subordinating conjunctions include after although as as if because before even if if in order to since though unless until whatever when whenever whether and while Identify the complete sentence Incorrect Before you make financial decisions Whenever opening or using communication software Correct Later he called his portfolio manager Explanations Later he called his portfolio manager is the only complete sentence The other phrases are dependent clauses A dependent clause is a group of words that may contain a subject and a predicate but does not contain a complete thought A dependent clause is not a complete sentenc Compound Sentences Most errors in sentence structure occur inside compound sentences Compound sentences consist of two independent clauses joined to form a single sentence The independent clauses in a compound sentence may be joined together in a number of ways with a semicolon with a coordinating conjunction or with a conjunctive adverb This compound sentence pattern consists of two independent clauses joined by a semicolon Use this pattern when both independent clauses are of equal emphasis or when the second clause restates the first Compound Sentence with a Semicolon Example 1 Poor workplace communication practices have resulted in high turnover rates we have replaced three administrative assistants in the last three months HR will be hiring a new administrative assistant qualified applicants should submit their resumes by Friday March 31 Example 2 Compound Sentence with a Semicolon This compound sentence pattern consists of two independent clauses joined by a semicolon Use this pattern when both independent clauses are of equal emphasis or when the second clause restates the first Compound Sentence with a Coordinating Conjunction This compound sentence pattern consists of an independent clause followed by a comma a coordinating conjunction and then another independent clause There are seven coordinating conjunctions and but for or nor so and yet Use this pattern when both independent clauses are of equal importance and you want to indicate the relationship between the two clauses Example 1 Salina wanted to join Toastmasters to improve her presentation skills but the Toastmaster meetings were held at the same time as her company s executive briefings Example 2 Jackson was looking forward to retirement for he was planning a trip to India Poor workplace communication practices have resulted in high turnover rates we have replaced three administrative assistants in the last three months HR will be hiring a new administrative assistant qualified applicants should submit their resumes by Friday March 31 Example 2 Compound Sentence with a Coordinating Conjunction Compound Sentence with a Conjunctive Adverb This compound sentence pattern consists of two independent clauses joined by a semicolon and a conjunctive adverb followed by a comma Examples of conjunctive adverbs are therefore moreover thus consequently however and also Use this pattern when you want to clarify or comment upon the relationship between the ideas in two independent clauses Example 1 Example 2 Alex began putting money in his 401 k in his early 20s consequently he will have financial security when he retires Louise is the most qualified candidate for the position therefore we should hire her Identify the correctly written compound sentences Check all that apply Meaning in face to face meetings is derived largely from nonverbal cues thus good posture and appropriate expressions are very important in a presentation Good speakers are well prepared rehearsals are an integral part of that preparation Graphic representations of information are more memorable than bulleted lists therefore it is important to incorporate graphics into your presentation visuals Using visuals during a presentation can help the audience remember information however poorly designed visuals can hinder audience comprehension Compound sentences may be punctuated in several different ways The following compound sentence is presented twice Choose the best way to complete it from the options provided in each instance Face to face meetings are productive however Correct they can be time consuming Face to face meetings are productive but Correct they can be time consuming The best options for punctuating this sentence are either a semicolon followed by the conjunctive adverb however and a comma or the coordinating conjunction but preceded by a comma Both of these options allow the writer to indicate the relationship between the two clauses Connecting two independent clauses with only a comma would result in a comma splice Providing no punctuation would result in a run on sentence The CFO discussed stakeholder concerns in relation to the financial turnaround plan he then presented next month s projected sales Incorrect The CFO discussed stakeholder concerns in relation to the financial turnaround plan and he then presented next month s projected sales Correct The CFO


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