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ANTHROPOLOGY EXAM STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 1 Aristotle 4th Century BC ef ciency organization of organisms in nature xity of species great chain of being Nicholas Copernicus 1473 1543 Disposed of the old system introduced heliocentric Archbishop James Usher 1581 1656 Calculated date of creation based on begat chapter of Genesis to 4004 BC less than 6 000 yrs old John Ray 1627 1705 Recognized that groups of plants animals can be distinguished from one another species genus Comte de Buffon 1707 1788 1794 Natural History says environment changes organisms adaptation Erasmus Darwin 1731 1802 Charles Darwin s grandfather Entertained ideas of evolution and species change over time through poetry Jean Baptiste Lamark Published Philosophie Zoologique in 1809 Lamarkian Change The inheritance of acquired traits ex giraffes have long necks because its ancestor stretched higher and higher and the longer necks were passed onto their offspring George Cuvier Catastrophism the world s geographic landscapes are results of cataclysmic events Noah s Flood Thomas Malthus 1766 1834 Exponential growth of human populations beyond carrying capacity competition for resources Charles Lyell 1797 1875 Principles of Geology 1830 Uniformitarianism Processes acting and sharing the world today were in operation in the past the earth has great antiquity Charles Darwin 1809 1882 In uenced by Charles Lyell Principles of Geology Darwin set sail on the H M S Beagle 1831 1836 as the ships naturalist and companion to the captain They surveyed the south seas mainly South America and the Galapagos Islands to collect plants and animals Arti cial Selection selected by humans Selection desirable characteristics to be passed on to the offspring of domestic species Naturally occurring species also have selective pressure for survival From nature not humans Natural Selection Alfred Russel Wallace 1823 1913 British naturalists researching in Indonesia Wallace Line Co discovered the theory of natural selection and conversed with Darwin Father of Biogeography Thomas Henry Huxley 1825 1895 Darwin s Bulldog Darwin sick little to defend Defender of evolutionary theory Natural Selection Species are Mutable not xed Mechanism Natural Selection Branching tree of life rather than a ladder Basic Process Biological variation w in species More offspring produced than survive competition Some variations are favorable than survive competition Some variations are favorable promote higher survival rate reproductive success Successful variations accumulate in a population yielding distinct changes over long period of time Natural selection acts on the individual but population evolves CHAPTER 2 Genetics Mendel Nuclear DNA found in the nucleus of a cell make up chromosomes 46 total in humans Somatic Cells body cells Gametes sex cells Genome Complete set of DNA DNA Characteristics double helix ladder like ladder form nucleotide bases adenine thymine guanine cytosine Nucleotides consist of sugar phosphate base Cell contains nucleus nucleus contains chromosome chromosomes make up DNA strands DNA made up of nucleotides nucleotides are a phosphate sugar and base Functions of DNA Replication DNA copies itself though cell division each new cell receive same genetic info Mitosis 1st process of replication somatic Meiosis 2nd process of replication gamete Protein Synthesis RNA carries instruction from DNA for controlling the synthesis proteins transcription translation Genes and Chromosomes Genes segments of DNA w in the chromosomes that codes for protein Alleles alternate forms of gene Chromosome strands of coiled DNA that carry most of the genetic information for the cell and the organism Cell Reproduction Mitosis Production of identical somatic cells DNA replication followed by one cell division Diploid cell contains full set of chromosomes Meiosis Production of Gametes sex cells DNA replication followed by two cell divisions Gametes are haploid half the of chromosomes Chromosomal Abnormalities Non disjunctive Error The failure of homologous chromosomes to separate properly during cell division Monosmy turner syndrome single x chromosome Trisomy Down s Syndrome Chromosome 21 does not separate correctly 47 instead of 46 Mendelian Genetics Heredity experiments between 1856 63 Solution to Darwin s problem of variation Both blending inheritance depletion of variation genotype particular combination of gene alleles an individual carries phenotype observable characteristics such as color of peas dominant an allele dominant if with only one copy show same color as if two copies recessive an allele is recessive no effect on heterozygotes recombination creation of novel genotype as a result of random segregation of chromosomes and of crossing over linkage when two genes controlling two different traits reside on the same chromosome these traits are linked ex blonde hair blue eyes polygenic traits many genes contribute to a single physical trait polytrophy one gene effects multiple traits most genetic interactions result in a cline continuous gradient distribution of traits height skin color hair color Costs of Sex must search out mate risks injury sexually transmitted disease eaten by a predator recombination breaks up successful genotypes Switching from asexual to sexual produce offspring who will disperse to seek habitat Red Queen Hypothesis Produce clones parasites pathogens of various kinds can exploit effectively because they have adapted to parent s genotype w sex offspring variate pathogen just begin anew The Sexes Gametes are small numerous cheap males Gametes are large rare costly females Disruptive Selection can produce 2 different gametes and sexes CHAPTER 4 Intro to Physical Anthropology Force of Evolution Speciation Evolution change in a population over time change of the genetic composition of populations over time from generation to generation observed everyday also in paleontological record think tinkerer evolution tinkers what is already there not an engineer 4 means of population change alter the variability in a population selection reduces variability genetic drift randomization of variability gene ow gene exchange combines variability brings new variability mutation creates new variability environment always changing don t adapt extinct humans have cultural adaption mutation only process that can create brand new genes Modes of Selection stabilizing reinforces mean directional towards extreme skewed disruptive opposite extremes Balanced

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