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OTTAWA HSS 1100 - CHAPTER 9

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CHAPTER 9The creation of a Global Village - Travelling in Europe was very different in 1980- Each country had its own distinct shopping experience and few people spoke English- Some people called this a global villageThe triumphs and Tragedies of Globalization- Globalization occurs as people become increasingly aware of, and dependent on, one another o It has linked people together and made them more dependent on one another over the past four decades  International telecommunication has become easy and inexpensive Although the world’s population has increased by 53%, tourism has increased by346% Worldwide investment across national borders increases by 2781% The number of international organizations and agreements has increased dramatically In 1981 there were 213 internet hosts, in 2016 there were 1.7 billion- Globalization also has downsideso Inequality between rich and poor countries o Has negative effects on local cultures and natural environment o Anti-globalization activists say G is a form of imperialism Imperialism is the economic domination of one country by anotherThe Sources and Contours of GlobalizationGlobalization in Everyday Life- When we purchase a commodity, we often access a global commodity chaino Global commodity chain is a worldwide network of labour and production processes whose end result is a finished commodity- Consider how one commodity, athletic shoes, connects consumers and producero Until 1970, most shoes were made in USo Now it’s made abroad, taking advantage of low labour costs  Took it overseas when government took away laws for foreign trade and investment End result was global division of labouro In Indonesia, Nike workers make 50 cents an hour and they are required to work overtime and sexual harassment by workers is common  They tried to form a union, but the organizers got fired and the military was brought in to resort order- People who buy a pair of Nike shoes become a part of the global commodity chaino They did not create a relation to exploit Indonesians, but they have a small role in helping those social relations persistThe Sources of Globalization- Technological, political and economic changeTechnology- Allows us to quickly and inexpensively move goods and info over long distanceo Airplanes shorten times for international travel o Phone, fax, email help us communicate Politics- Free trade agreement between Canada and South Korea in 2015- We extended diplomatic recognition to North Korea in 2001 and as of 2017, Canada has not opened an embassy there and there is no trade between them- Why?o Canada and SK became allied since the Korean War in early 1950s and SK has pursued political, economic and cultural integration with the outside worldo NK is isolated Economics- Industrial capitalism is focused on finding new markets, making higher profits, and lowering labour costs- Transitional corporations (TC) -also called multinational or international corporations-are chief agents of globalization in the world today. They differ from traditional corporations in five ways1. Traditional C rely on domestic labour and D production. TC depend on foreign labour and F production2. TRAC extracts natural resources or manufacture industrial goods. TC increasingly emphasized skills and advances in design, tech and management3. TRAC sell to domestic market. TC depend increasingly on world markets4. TRAC rely on established marketing and sales outlets. TC depend on massive ad campaigns5. TRAC work with or under national government. TC are autonomous from NG- T, P, and E work togethero E.g., government promotes economic competition to help transnational corporations win global markets o Smoking exampleA World Like the US?- Impressionistic evidence supports the view that globalization homogenizes societieso Many economic and financial institutions around the world now operate similarlyo McDonaldization is a form of rationalization. It refers to the spread of the principles of fast-food restaurants-efficiency, predictability, and calculability-to all spheres of life- McDonaldization extends Weber’s concept of rationalization, the application of the most efficient means to achieve given ends- According to Ritzer, MD has led to the expansion of the values of efficiency, calculability,and predictability to practically every aspect of life- Symbolic Interactionism uses the term glocalization to describe how globalization leads to the simultaneous homogenization of some aspect of life and the strengthening of some local differences - Regarding globalization as merely homogenization also ignores regionalization, the division of the world into different and often competing economic, political and cultural zoneso Divisions suggest the institutional and cultural integration of countries is far fromcomplete Globalization and Its Discontents: Anti-Globalization and Anti-Americanism ---!!!- Of the many reactions against globalization around the world, Islamic fundamentalism isthe most far-reaching and ferocious - An enormously less violent reaction is the anti-globalization movement in the advanced industrial countriesThe History of Globalization- The extent of globalization since about 1980 is unprecedented in world history- Sociologist Martin Albrow therefore argues that the global age is only a few decades oldo They tend to exaggerate the extent of globalization The nation-state is still a major center of power in the world National borders remain important Most countries concentrate their business in a single country. Most foreign trade occurs between advanced industrial countries  Many developed countries are poorly integrated in the global economies Most people in the world don’t have access to email- Globalization is not as recent as Albrow says it is- Giddens argues that G is the result of industrialization and modernization, which picked up in the late 19cent o 100 years ago, people moved across borders with passport - WWI and great depression undermined the globalization of the late 19cent and early 20cent o They incited racism, protectionism and military build up - Globalization is not a linear process- Roland Robertson says G is as old as civilization and it is the fact that caused modernization, not the other way around- A short historical view misses long-term developments that have brought the worlds people closer together but if we think about it as an old phenomenon then the definition and value of the


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