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Montclair ANTH 180 - ANTH 180, Study Guide Test 2

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ANTH 180 Study Guide Test 2 on November 4This test comprises the professor’s Power Points (see Module II) and readings of Module II (Michael Brannigan “When worldviews collide” and “From fault lines to culture competency”) and the film “Being Mortal.” Also, the professor’s Power Points (see Module III) and the readings (Womack, “Restoring Balance, and Kaptchuck’s “The fundamental textures,” “The organs,” and the meridians”). There are several videos inserted in the modules that give you examples. Your classmates’ outlines will be posted on the Module’s Students Presentations. Please STUDY and come prepared for the TEST. 1. How is the concept of “normality” versus disease established in the biomedical/biostatistical model? Explain your response. MODULE 2 PPTXWhat is normal? (Is it a matter of harmony and balance, a matter of statistical average, a matter of social construction, or a combination of these concetps?)2. What is the main difference regarding the concept of disease between the biomedical naturalist model and the biomedical constructivist model? Provide anexample to support your answer.Biomedicine is an ethnomedicine (i.e., a medical system—an organized set of ideas referring to a particular medical tradition in the West). There are other medical traditions (e.g., acupuncture, homeopathy, Ayurveda). • The biomedical model sees “disease” as existing in the real/natural world as ontological and objective entities independent of socio-cultural values and judgments (Quinn Shonne 2019, 49). • Disease refers to observable, organic and pathological abnormalities in organs or physiologicalfunctions, that are independent of whether they are socially and culturally recognized. The normativist model sees health as a concept that both considers factual conditions (e.g., biological facts) and also social and cultural assessments of what is to be sick or healthy in a certain community. For instance, epilepsy was seen as an evil possession in the Middle Ages in Europe but as a state of distinction in the Hmong culture (an ethic group in China and SoutheastAsia).3. Why is a strict biostatistical model of disease problematic to diagnose mental illness? IT CAN NOT BE MEASURED, AND EVERYONE CAN RECOVER DIFFERENTLY AND THEY WILL ONLY RECOVER BY THEIR OWN MENTAL HEALTH AND INDIVIDUAL PROCESS AND CIRCUMSTANCES 4. What are the main characteristics of the biomedical model? Mention at least three and provide an explanation for each. • Mind/body dualism. (Influence of Renaissance philosopher René Descartes 1596-1650)• Body is like a machine. • Doctrine of specific etiology. The cause of a disease is a singular virus, bacteria, parasites, a genetic mutation, etc. • Reductionism. Health and disease are explained in strictly biological terms.• Technological imperative: technology-based evidence or lab tests or imaging over the patient’s subjective narrative.5. According to bioethicists Michael Brannigan, what is the “technological imperative” in biomedicine? And how does the film “Being Mortal” illustrate this technological imperative? Provide an example from the film’s patients and their cases.6. According to bioethicists Michael Brannigan, what is “cultural competence” in health care? Provide an example. CULTURAL COMPETENCE IS AN UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING AND KNOWING THAT DIFFERENT CULTURES DEAL WITH HEALTH IN DIFFERENT WAYS. WE ALSO NEED TO BE RESPECTFUL OF THESE THINGS AND BE ABLE TO COMMUNICATE AND BE HUMBLE WITH IT AS WELL. AN EXAMPLE WOULDBE THE BRAIN-DEAD FAMILY MEMBER (ELABORATE ON THE TEST)7. Say whether it is True or False: Knowing a list of cultural differences and norms is enough to prevent “cultural fault lines” when caring for patients in hospitals. Explain your answer and provide an example. FALSE BECAUSE YOU NEED TO BE ABLE TO UNDERSTAND THE DIFFRNCES AND BE ABLE TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE PAITENT AND BE HUMBLE ABOUT IT.8. (a) What are health aims of energy models such as acupuncture and reiki? (b) And how do these aims differ from the biomedical model? Indicate at least two aims associated with the energy models and their differences with the biomedicalmodel.A) The health aims of energy models such as Reiki and Acupuncture are to balance the energy flow and Qi in the body.B) energy models aim at addressing the relationship of the microcosm (the human patient) with the macrocosm (the total energy of the universe). Energy models aim at restoring balance and harmony within the body and outside the body. Energy models focus on preventing diseases. Energy models are not based in statistical analysis that determine standards of “normality” or “deviance” From normality. Biomedicine targets the underlying biological “cause” of the disorder. The physician starts with a symptom, then searches for a cause for a specific disease. Biomedicine aims at diagnosing diseases by means of statistical averages that offer a distinction between normal and abnormal functioning.9. Does the NCCAM (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine)currently accept energy medical models as legitimate health models? What is theposition of this branch corresponding to the National Institutes of Health? The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) identifies energy medicine as a domain in its National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM)10.What is an example of a “veritable” and a “putative” medical practice? Explain your examples. Veritable medical practice is a medicine that uses vibration and electromagnetic radiation to treat patients. An example would be Acupuncture or UV Light therapy. Putative medical practiceis a medicine that influences the body's energy field using hands, needles, or meditation 11.According to the Chinese medical model, what are the two main reasons for the arising of disease in a person?The imbalance of a person’s yin & yang and the second reason is the imbalance of the person's Qi 12.Say whether this statement is true or false. Qi is a source of energy that gives lifeto lifeless matter. Explain your answer. FALSE. Qi is neither a source of energy nor adds life to lifeless matter. Qi is not a source separate from beings or matter. Qi is a kind of energy at the point of materializing, but it is also matter on the verge of becoming energy and transforming itself. (Qi is transformation and change, process, and state at the same time.) Qi is


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