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1. Earthen Roads2. Gravel Roads3. Murrum Roads4. Kankar Roads5. WBM Roads6. Bituminous Roads7. Concrete Roads1. National Highways2. State Highways3. District Roads4. Rural Roads or Village Roads1. Light Traffic Roads2. Medium Traffic Roads3. High Traffic RoadsBased on Traffic Type1. Pedestrian Ways2. Cycle Tracks3. MotorwaysBased on Rigidity1. Flexible Roads2. Rigid RoadsBased on Topography1. Plain Area Road2. Hilly Area RoadsBridgeDeckAbutmentPilePierGirder (Box or I-joist)Rail TrackTypes of BridgesTruss Bridge:Advantages of Truss Bridge:Disadvantages of Truss Bridges:Arch bridge:Advantages of Arch Bridge:Disadvantages of Arch bridge:Suspension BridgesAdvantages of Suspension bridge:Disadvantages of Suspension bridge:Cable-stayed bridge:Advantages of Cable-Stayed Bridge:Disadvantages of Cable-Stayed Bridge:Slab BridgesBox Girder BridgesBeam bridge or Stringer Bridge or Girder bridge:Advantages of Beam bridge:Disadvantages of Beam bridge:Cantilever bridge:Advantages of Cantilever Bridge:Disadvantages of Cantilever Bridge:DamBased on the functions of damBased on structure and design, dams can be classifELEMENTS OF CIVIL ENGINEERINGSCOPE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Surveying Building Materials Technology Geotechnical Engineering Structural Engineering Construction Technology Hydraulics Water Resources and Irrigation Engineering Transportation Engineering Environmental Engineering SurveyingIt is a field of specialisation which involvesprocesses through which the relative positions ofvarious points are objects on the earth ’ s surfaceare determined on a horizontal plane as well as ona vertical plane. The results of such processes arerepresented in the form of map or plan. A plan is agraphical representation of various groundfeatures as projected on a horizontal plane, tosome convenient scale, on a sheet of paper.Surveying is an essential work which is carried outin the beginning of any constructional activity,such as development of an area, construction oftransportation facilities such as road ways, railwaysand air field pavements, construction of structuressuch as buildings, bridges, dams and the like.Conventional methods of surveying include chainsurveying, compass surveying, theodolitesurveying, plane table surveying and levelling. Themodern day surveying, by virtue of developmentsin technology, include the use of sophisticatedinstruments like total station and other electronic,electro-magnetic, electro-optical instruments andtools such as Geographic Information System (GIS),Global Positioning System (GPS) and the like. Italso makes use of allied fields such as remotesensing and photogrammetry. Building MaterialsTechnology Any constructional activity invariablyrequires the use of different types of materials.These materials of construction can be broadlyclassified in to Conventional materials (Ex: soil,stones, bricks, timber, cement / lime, tiles, plainand reinforced cement concrete, pre-stressedconcrete). Modern building materials (Ex: Fibrereinforced concrete, aluminium, glazed tiles,plaster of Paris). Alternate building materials(Ex: Fly ash, polymeric materials, industrial wastes,recycled aggregates). Smart materials. Geotechnical EngineeringAll structures built on earth transfer thesuperimposed loads to the ground (soil / rock)underneath, through appropriate foundation. Soilsare complex geological materials which areexpected to receive the loads transferred to themsafely without causing damage to the structure.The soils are physico-chemically active materials,and their engineering behaviour depends upontheir water.1. a detailed study of soils – formation,composition, properties and their determination2. a detailed study of rocks – types, properties,strength and deformation characteristics and theirdetermination.3. different types foundations, their relative meritsand limitations, suitability and design aspects.4. design and analysis of various earth structuressuch as embankments, dams, retaining walls etc.5. site investigation, sub-soil exploration and fieldtests.6. Ground improvement techniques Structural EngineeringAll structures constructed on this earth aresubjected to various types of loads of differentcomplexities / nature. Various components of astructure are expected to respond to these loadsfavourably and to withstand them safely. Thesatisfactory performance of structures requires theknowledge of materials’ behaviour and selectionof appropriate material for use, proportioning /designing different components of a structure,estimating the stresses developed in differentcomponent of a structure and back checking thedesign. This field includes subjects like engineeringmechanics, strength of materials, structuralanalysis and design of structures. It also requiresthe knowledge of different tools to carry out theanalysis and design of structural components suchas matrix method of analysis, finite differenttechniques, finite element method of analysis andthe like. Construction TechnologyAll activities undertaken in the construction of anystructure come under this field.Construction of various types of structures, makinguse of various types of constructional materialsavailable, study of different technologies ofconstruction, management of variousconstructional activities with respect to differentparameters like resources (material / human), time,finance and legal aspects are included in this fieldof civil engineering. HydraulicsWater is an integral part of human life and ofalmost all constructional activities. This subjectdeals with1. basic properties of water2. study of water at rest as well as in motion3. flow through pipes4. open channel flows5. flow measurements6. different analytical, computational andexperimental approaches to analyse the flowproblems. Water Resources and Irrigation EngineeringThere are different sources of fresh water on thisearth such as rain, ground water, streams / rivers.These waters have to be harnessed and storedproperly before they are utilised for differentpurposes such as drinking, irrigation and waterpower generation. This subject deals with1. different sources of water on this earth2. estimation of total water available and waterrequirement3. construction and maintenance of structures totap the available resources of water4. planning and building of water retainingstructures such as tanks / dams5. construction and maintenance of water

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