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UMass Amherst KIN 440 - Health Disparities and Physical Activity

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Health Disparities and Physical Activity- driven by several determinants such as race and ethnicity, age, SES, disability status,geography, education, and sexual and gender identity.- Health disparities are driven by underlying social and economic inequities that are rootedin racism. Addressing disparities is important not only from a social justice standpoint butfor improving our nation's overall health and economic prosperity.The Philadelphia Negro (1899)- Sociological case study of a black community in the 7th ward of Philadelphia- One of the first statistically driven social science studies- One of the first studies on race- Major conclusion from study =- Challenge the dominant medical paradigm by declaring that race differences inhealth are not innate! • Rather, they are primarily social! • black and whitedifferences in social advancement and living and working conditionsSocial Disparities of Health- “the conditions in which people are born, grow, work, live, and age, and the wider set offorces and systems shaping the conditions of daily life” -World health organization- These forces and systems include economic policies and systems, developmentagendas, social norms, social policies and political systems.- The choices we make are shaped by the choices we have.Health Disparities- Differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence, or opportunities to achieve optimalhealth that are linked to social, economic, and/or environmental disadvantageHealth Equity- Attainment of the highest level of health for all people.- Achieving health equity requires valuing everyone equally with focused and ongoingsocietal efforts to address avoidable inequalities, historical and contemporary injustices,and the elimination of health and health care disparitiesWhy is it important?- Social justice- Costly • approximately $93 billion in excess medical care costs and $42 billion in lostproductivity per year as well as economic losses due to premature deaths- Our population is becoming more diverse- Limits our improvements in overall population healthAllostatic Load- = cost ofcoping/adapting to astressor (in otherwords, the wear & tearon the body)Neurodivergence andPhysical Activity- The art of creatingpublic healthinterventions that “meet people where they are”- “Differing in mental or neurological function from what is considered typical or normal”Five Foundations of Neurodivergency- Sensory Regulation: the ways that our brains process sensory input.- Emotional Regulation: how we process and respond to our environments through ouremotions.- Communication: the way that people exchange information- Executive Functioning: the processes by which we manage and execute actions.- Socialization: the ways in which we form connections with others.Diagnoses- Because we don’t know what the cause is and symptoms vary wildly from person toperson, ASD is diagnosed by the child’s development and behavior- Average age of diagnosis is 4.4 years (additional 1.5 years for Black Americans)- Some people with ASD might also have an Intellectual Disability- Currently 1 in 44 children are estimated to have ASD- DELAY IN DIAGNOSIS BETWEEN RACES (white is better than black and hispanic)Only Treat SymptomsThe CDC recognizes 4 paths of treatment:1.) Behavior and Communication Approaches – Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), assistivetechnology, relationship-based treatment, occupational therapy, social skills training, andspeech therapy2.) Dietary Approaches – gluten, camel’s milk3.) Medication4.) Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) – not endorsed or recommended by theCDC but recognized. Includes dietary supplements, mind-body medicine, andchelation.- People with ASD are significantly more likely to be obese with numerous co-morbidities,including sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal issues, cardiovascular disease, and mentalhealth conditions- More likely to be obese, not overweight- It is theorized that these adverse health outcomes are due to known health risk factors,such as poor eating habits, limited physical activity, and long-term psychotropicpharmaceutical use- “The results of the meta-analysis show that physical activity had a significant positiveimpact on social interaction ability, communication ability, motor skills, and autismdegree of autistic children as well as the social skills and communication skills ofautistic adolescents”ASD and Health Interference- The evidence is clear that physical activity is important for people with ASD not only totreat their overall health, but also treat their symptoms.- The PA guidelines for people with ASD are exactly the same as for their neurotypicalpeersThe Gap ProgramObjectives:- Teach Nutrition, Health & Wellness, Exercise- Evaluate students’ current abilities (esp. gross motor deficits)- Create Exercise Intervention plan for Summer 2018 Semester (16 weeks)Goals:- Increase Cardiovascular Health- Improve gross motor skills- Lose WeightConsiderations- Appeal to visual nature – people with ASD are often visual learners- Provide structure- Pay attention to and create space for sensory reactions to the environment- Build in strategies to reduce anxiety- Cater to language needs- Accommodations within the built environment- InnovationYoung Middle-Aged Adultsprimordial prevention = avoiding the development of risk factors in the first placeprimary prevention = treating early risk factors to prevent diseaseDevelopmental Considerations- 3 to 9 years old ◦ Develop and improve motor skills- 10 to 14 years old ◦ Individual and group activities- 15 to 18 years old ◦ Structured PA programs to transition toward adulthoodBenefitsThe following are reported benefits from the 2018 PA Guidelines:- Improved bone health (ages 3 through 17 years)- Improved weight status (ages 3 through 17 years)- Improved cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness (ages 6 through 17 years)- Improved cardiometabolic health (ages 6 through 17 years)- Improved cognition (ages 6 to 13 years)- Reduced risk of depression (ages 6 to 13 years)Pregnant Women PA- Normal but unique phase of life for many women- Heightened attention on health- Health during pregnancy has short-term and long-term health implications for mom andbaby- Increased weight gain- A shift in the point of gravity that results in progressive lordosis- These changes lead to an increase in the forces across joints and the spine duringweight-bearing exerciseGuidelines- 150 min of moderate to vigorous


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