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OSU ANTHROP 2200 - Study Guide 2

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Primate behavior• Jane Goodall, famous primatologist, observed the similarities in chimpanzees and humans• Primates would live in social groups and would coordinate and communicate in both friendly and aggressive ways.• One of the main influences of living was availability of food.• If there was a scarcity in food, there would be internal violence.• Primate culture is a controversial topic, with primatologists defining culture as a “shared learning behavior” i.e. In a gregarious society, the chimps would socially adopt common or new practises, subsequently affirming the presence of ‘primate culture’• Monogamous- Uncommon, one male one female, low competition, investment in offspring, defend territoryFun FactJane Goodall was the first to name her test subjects, chimps, rather than assigning them a number.Fossils• Palaeontology is the study of fossils• Fossilisation is when the bone conforms with rock• Radio-carbon dating approximates a time in which the fossil existed• All primates primarily being initially quadrupedal, shared similar skeletal structures, however had nuances individualising the different species.• Fossils allowed palaeontologists to identify at what stage, primates converted from quadrupedalism to bipedalism.How it relates to human evolution:They are preserved remains which give insight to a period in prehistory before time on earth today. It evidences the existence of earlier primal species, and further illustrates a starkly different lifestyle from what it is today. Fossils divulge every present segmentation of human development, thus illustrating human evolution.Fun FactTeeth remain the longest of any human skeletal body, in terms of decomposing.Hominins• Early Hominins converted from quadrapedalism to bipedalism in order to more efficiently move around, whilst carrying items.• Bipedalism also gave them a higher vantage point to see further away and higher places.• Introduction of early tool making• Crafted pointed objects from stone, used for shedding skin and meat of animal surfaces, making larger tools, and for hunting.• Early hominins anatomical traits slowly changed overtime due to adaptations to new environments and practises.Fun FactThe earliest complete specimen of the first hominin, ardi, was 3.9 feet

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