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GASTON PHI 210 - Aristotle

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Nicomachean EthicsEudaimonia (1095a20)Arguments Toward Principles: Beginning From Things We KnowHappiness & the Complete LifeSUBSTANCESOULVirtues of Thought (wisdom, comprehension, prudence)Virtues of Character (generosity, temperance) (1103a5-10)Virtuous Action (1105a25)VirtueDoctrine of the Mean (1106b25)The Principle of Action (1139a32)Prudence- descriptivedeliberation (1140a25)human goods (1140b17)young people (1142a10)Wisdom (1141a15, 1141a30, 1144a5)Being Good Without Qualification (1144b30)Book VIIBeing Overcome by Pleasure(1102b20, 1145b10)Socratic Ignorance (1145b25)Aristotle(384 B.C. – 322 B.C.)Nicomachean EthicsHappiness is the central idea. Necessarily virtuous Seeking some good (1094a)The Best Good (1094a20)A Sort of Political Science (1094b13)The Method of Political Science (1094b15-23)youth and political science (1095a)The Summum Bonum (1095a15)Highest GoodEudaimonia (1095a20)Happiness Arguments Toward Principles: Beginning From Things We Know(1095b)The Three Lives (Ch. 5)gratificationpoliticalstudymoney making2Plato and the Idea of the Good (1096b25)The Best Good is Complete (1097a30)Happiness is Complete Without Qualification (1097b)People are Naturally Political Animals (1097b10)Happiness is Complete &Self-Sufficient (1097b20)3The Function of a Human Being (1097b25)activity of the soul in accordance with reason (1098a5-20)Happiness Needs External Goods To Be Added (1099b)Not Fortune, But Activities in Accordance With Virtue (1100b10)Happiness & the Complete Life(1100b20, 1101a15)4Happiness is Honorable & Complete (1101b22-1102a)Is a principle Eudaimonia: The Telos (1102a)Happiness: An Activity of the Soul in Accordance With Complete Virtue (1102a5)human virtue (1102a15)virtue of the soul not of the body5============================De Anima (On the Soul)Bk II Ch 1SUBSTANCE(a) “in the sense of matter or that which in itself is not ‘a this,’ and (b) in the sense of form or essence, which is that precisely in virtue of which a thing is called ‘a this,’ and (c) in the sense of that which is compounded of both (a) and (b).”6SOUL“It is substance in the sense which corresponds to the definitive formula of a thing’s essence. That means that it is ‘the essential whatness’ of a body” that is organized, or possessed potentially of life.“Suppose that the eye were an animal—sight would have been its soul, for sight is the substance or essence of the eye which corresponds to” what it is to be an eye, “the eye being merely the matter of seeing; when seeing is removed the eye is no longer an eye, except in name—it is no more a real eyethan the eye of a statue or of a painted figure.”7“… as the pupil plus the power of sight constitutes the eye, so the soul plus the body constitute the animal.From this it indubitably follows that the soul is inseparable from its body.”============================8The SoulThe first activity of a living body; its characteristic activity or function; the characteristic functions and activities that are essential to the organism and explain the other features it has.Nonrational Part (1102b)Nutritive/plantlike part; by nature has no share in human virtue, does not share in reason at allThe part with appetites and in general desires; shares in reason in away, it both listens to and obeys reasonRational Part9Virtues of Thought (wisdom, comprehension, prudence)&Virtues of Character (generosity, temperance) (1103a5-10)10Book IIVirtues of Thought – TEACHING (1103a15)Virtues of Character – HABITnone arise naturally, but we are able to acquire (1103a20)about pleasures and pains (1104b5)bravery, temperance, generosity, magnificence, magnanimity, justice (1107a30-1108b10)Virtuous Action (1105a25)11Virtuea state that decides, consisting in a mean, the mean relative to us, which is defined by reference to reason (1107a)Doctrine of the Mean (1106b25)a quantitative metaphor applied to the ethical virtues (1104a20)Some Virtues of Character (1107b)12VIRTUE VICE VICE[re what] [too much] [too little]bravery rash cowardly[feelings of fear and confidence]----------------------------------------------------------------------temperance intemperance insensible[pleasures and pains]----------------------------------------------------------------------generosity wastefulness ungenerous[giving and taking $]----------------------------------------------------------------------magnificence vulgarity stinginess[managing large sums of $]----------------------------------------------------------------------magnanimity vanity pusillanimity[honor and dishonor]----------------------------------------------------------------------13Book VIThe Principle of Action (1139a32)Prudence- descriptive deliberation (1140a25) human goods (1140b17) young people (1142a10) prescription (1143a10)Wisdom (1141a15, 1141a30, 1144a5)Being Good Without Qualification (1144b30)14Book VIIBeing Overcome by Pleasure (1102b20, 1145b10)Socratic Ignorance


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