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ECU PHIL 1175 - Statements for Study

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Statements for StudyIntroductionDirectionsLogicMoral PhilosophyKantHumeAristotleSterbaPHIL 1175: Intro Ethics Dr. Roberts Statements for Study Introduction One of the best ways to learn philosophy is to write-out philosophical ideas, distinctions, arguments, etc. by hand. Hence, students should study by making their best effort at composing hand-written responses to each of the Statements for Study. Students should learn the course content by: (1) completing the assigned reading in accordance with the direction provided in “How to Read Philosophy,” (2) judicious note-taking during lectures using the Subject Outlines, (3) writing and rewriting their responses to each Statement for Study, and (4) engaging in discussions regarding the course content, both inside and outside of the classroom. Since the content of the Statements for Study reflects the content of the items given in the course examinations, students will find that their completed explanatory essays are a valuable tool for exam preparation. Remember: the goal is not mere rote learning or memorization of the course material; the goal is to gain an understanding, i.e., to have a body of information and to grasp theexplanatory connections concerning that body of information. Students must not only learn the facts, they must also be able to appreciate how those facts hang together. Directions For each Statement for Study, first respond by asserting whether the statement is true or false. Next, compose a hand-written essay that provides the fullest possible explanation of (i.e., sheds the greatest possible light on) why the statement being responded to is either true or false. Compose each essay as if explaining the response to someone completely unfamiliar with philosophy. Since completion of these essays is strictly a study exercise, students should quote liberally from the course material, giving an informal page number citation for each quotation. Except for the first week of the semester, students should complete each week’s assigned reading by the first class meeting of the week. Responses to all Statements for Study relevant to a particular lecture should be completed prior to the next lecture.2 What Is Philosophy? 1. All philosophy in the world began in Ancient Greece. False. There is no actual record of where it clearly began.2. Philosophy is mostly concerned with facts and figures. 3. The word ‘philosophy’ is derived from the Latin words ‘philo’ and ‘sophia.’ False. They are said to be derived from Greek words.4. Ontology is concerned with being and existence and is a part of metaphysics. True.5. Logic and epistemology are totally indistinguishable. False. They are two separate branches.6. Epistemology is concerned with theories of knowledge. True. It is the branch of philosophy that investigates the nature of knowledge and belief.7. Philosophy cannot examine concepts and views drawn from science, art, religion, politics, or any other realm. False. It can, it’s basically the whole concept of philosophy.8. No area of philosophy is concerned with the meanings of moral concepts likeright action and obligation, and with formulating principles to guide moral decisions. False. Ethics is concerned with all.9. The title of the highest degree granted in most scholarly and scientific disciplines—Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)—is evidence that philosophy once embraced nearly all forms of inquiry. True.10. Part of the practical value of philosophy is that it develops one’s ability tothink in a formal, logical, and structured way. Logic 1. Shedding light on an accepted fact is not the aim of an argument. True. The aim of an argument is to show and prove that the conclusion is true. 2. ‘Since’ and ‘because’ are indicator words for a premise. True. These words help distinguish the premise from the conclusion.3. A warning is a non-argument. True.3 4. The following is not a valid argument: P1: All human beings require H20 to live P2: Quigley is a human being ------------------------------------------------- C: Quigley requires H20 to live False. Given that P1 states that all human beings require H2O and P2 states that Quigley is a human being thus making the statement true, because of the relationship shared with Human beings stated.5. The following is not a cogent argument: P1: Most human beings are marsupials P2: Both U.S. Senators from NC are human beings ---------------------------------------------------------------- C: Both U.S. Senators from NC are marsupials False. Given that P1 states that most human being are marsupials and P2 states that U.S Senators from NC are human beings, again both premises share the relationship of human beings in the statements thus making it true (Cogent) 6. Arguments cannot be either true or false. True. Arguments don’t have/hold any truth value 7. The conclusion is the statement in an argument that the premises are claimed to support or imply. True. A premise is a statement in an argument that sets forth reasons or evidence thus make the conclusion a statement where the premises support the conclusion.8. Typical kinds of arguments include warnings, reports, explanations and conditional statements. False. They type of arguments are considered non- arguments.9. Deductive arguments are never valid when it is impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false. False. They are always valid in this case.10. A valid deductive argument that has true premises is unsound. False. If the argument is valid then it would be sound. An unsound argument has one premise that is false.11. Inductive arguments only claim that it is improbable that the premises be true and the conclusion false. True. Literally the definition of an inductive argument.12. Cogent arguments are always deductive arguments. False. They are always inductive arguments.4 13. The following argument is invalid: P1: Justice adheres to the Difference Principle P2: The Difference Principle is an egalitarian principle --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- C: Justice adheres to an egalitarian principle True. Give that P1 states that justice adheres to diff. principles and P2 states that diff principles egalitarian principles. Thus, making the statement true.14. All arguments that contain fallacies are good arguments. False. They make bad arguments. Essentially makes them appear good.15.


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