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8/261. How do we define East Asia and the Asia Pacific? How does Yahuda describe the evolution of the region's history and identity over time?a. Asia was defined by the outside world in the early 1920’s. The term “Asia” was used to describe regions beyond the Western world. Another term used to describe Asia is “Far East.” b. ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations; total of 10 countriesc. APEC: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation; U.S., Australia, Canada, Mexico, Peru is includedd. Indo-Pacific: emphasis on India2. How do you characterize the region? What’s similar and what’s different among the countries in the region?a. Characteristics; similarities:i. Asian Values & Principles1. Collectivism & group orientationa. Reserved & non-confrontational2. Family orienteda. Gender roles of women taking care of family (gradually transitioning concept)3. Patriotism & seniority hierarchy4. Emphasis on education5. Northeast Asia uses chopsticksii. Historical Experience1. Colonialismiii. Influence of “the West” and “modernity”1. Western imperialisma. Automation & mechanizations (labor saving technology)b. Clothingc. Fast foodsd. TV shows/moviesb. Characteristics; diversity:i. Culture, language, religion1. ~2000 languages2. Buddhism, Catholicism, Christianity, Islamism, etc.ii. Domestic political stability, level of democratization1. Indonesia is the largest democracy (ex.)2. Japan, South Korea are also democratic (ex.)3. China is communistic, but still stableiii. Level of development and speed of economic growth1. Japan had rapid growth in 50’s-60’s2. South Korea & Taiwan & Singapore came next3. Late 80’s southeast Asia grew4. Asia financial crisis5. 21st century had major growth in Chinaiv. Power in the regional and global system1. China is the most powerful in terms of economic growth & military structure2. Japan is technologically powerfula. U.S. ally, so they have military extension3. How do you analyze country characteristics and comparison? What data do you need? How do we evaluate this data? a.i. Difference in North and South Koreaii. Singapore is the smallest country but has one of the highest military expenditureiii. North Korea military expenditure is insanely high (estimate)iv. China’s GDP is vastb. Measurable Data:i. HDIii. FDIiii. CPIiv. Demographic profilev. Labor force participationvi. unemployment ratevii. Vaccination rateviii. Poverty rateix. Debt & reservesx. immigration/emigration rate8/31- History:1. How do you describe the Chinese World Order? Describe the characteristics of China and its governance and power up to the Qing Dynasty (-1911)2. What is Kang’s argument? What does his argument imply about the current regional system in East Asia? What do you think about his interpretations?3. Contrast the levels of economic development between East Asia and the West prior to the 1800s? Why do you think the West prevailed? What are theories relevant to understand the history of economic development?a. comparing economic developmentb. Why did western Europe prevail?c. theories: modernization vs. world systems theory1. Kang’s main argumenta. East Asian Tributary system created security stability, as China was the hegemon2. evidence, a. peace withinb. confucian beliefs3. contemporary implication of his analysis, a. Westernized colonies have a hard time transitioning and adapting towards the East Asian Tributary system4. your reaction & critique9/2- History: Western & Japanese Imperialism and its aftermath- European Expansion into East Asia- Motivation behind expansions: Gold, Glory, God- Phases of expansion- Mode of expansion- Colonial powers- Instrument of expansion- Reaction to the West- Why did Japan manage to avoid colonization and achieve rapid modernization compared to China?- Japan wanted to industrialize rapidly, while China was against immigration into their lands- Japan had higher levels of nationalism & cultural emphasis- Japan borrowed/adapted to Western views- Meiji Restoration- Legacies of western colonialism- Language, education, medicine, technology, religion, infrastructure- Sense of sovereignty- Notion of nation state- Borders - Migration - Japanese Imperialism in East Asia- “Rich Nation, Strong Army” after Meiji Restoration (c.f. Pyle’s reading)- Wars and Territorial Acquisition- 1894-98: (1st) Sino-Japanese War- 1904-05: Russo-Japanese War- 1910: Annexation of Korea- 1914-19: WWI- 1931: Manchuria Incident- 1937-45: (2nd) Sino-Japanese War- Pacific War and its aftermath- The “Pacific War”- Japan’s Defeat and the US Occupation- Impact of Japanese expansion and its defeat on the rest of Asia9/7- How did the Cold War develop in Asia? How was that development different from that in Europe? Was it possible for some Asian countries to stay neutral?- Iron curtain vs. fragmented- Democracy vs. authoritarian - Ideology/voluntary vs. fear- What factors determined facilities and difficulties of East Asia’s independence movements?- What caused the USSR and China to part their ways? How did this “split” and realignment impact the reset of Asia?9/14Major Powers and Asia: The United States1. Analyze the Obama administration’s (2009-2016) Pacific strategy. What were the features of the “pivot” strategy, and did the strategy work?a. Goals of the “Pivot”i. Strengthening American alliesii. Blob engagement vs. entertainmentiii. Engaging with Asia for Pacific Power1. Multilateralism/ASEAN b. Instruments of the “Pivot”i. diplomacyc. Effectiveness & dangers of the “Pivot”2. How did the US foreign policy (especially toward East Asia) shift under the Trump presidency (2017-2020)? What was Trump’s strategy?a. Major characteristics of President Trump’s foreign policy towards Asiai. Trump & the Liberal International Order1. At G7 summit in Quebec, Canada (June 2018)2. Trump left early & US did not endorse G7 leaders’ communiqueb. Trump’s political foundation3. What are the main factors that determine US foreign policy? How can it be effective and what are the US weaknesses?a. Traits of US foreign policyi. Power in the regionb. Domestic factorsi. Individual beliefsii. Political & economic interestsiii. Public opinioniv. Institutional setupc. Regional & global factorsi. Power relationsii. Economic interdependence & balanceiii. Institutions; alliance, regionalism to IOsiv. Crises & their impacts4. What leverage does the US have in promoting its national interest in the Asia Pacific? What are the US weaknesses

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