Chapter 5 PPT

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Slide 1Slide 2Chapter ThemesI. Unintentional Injuries and ViolenceUnintentional Injury and ViolenceMotor Vehicle AccidentsMotor Vehicle AccidentsViolenceViolenceViolence: High School Student DataViolenceViolenceViolenceViolenceViolenceSuicide Rates: Global StatisticsII. Substance Use/Abuse: Influence of Culture, Age, and GenderCigarettesCigarettesCDC Video SmokingCigarette SmokingCigarette SmokingCigarette SmokingCigarette SmokingCigarette SmokingCigarette SmokingTheories of Substance UseTheory #1: Cognitive Affective TheoriesTheory #2: Social Learning TheoriesTheory #3: Commitment TheoriesTheory #4: Personality Trait TheoriesTheory #5: IntegrationistSubstance UseAlcoholSlide 35AlcoholTheories of Alcohol UseAlcoholIllegal and Prescription DrugsIllegal and Prescription DrugsIllegal and Prescription DrugsIllegal and Prescription DrugsIllegal and Prescription DrugsIllegal and Prescription DrugsIllegal and Prescription DrugsIII. Risky Sexual BehaviorsDefining RiskEarly Initiation BehaviorsHIV/AIDSHIV/AIDSHIV/AIDSHealth Protecting BehaviorsSubstance Use and Sexual BehaviorTeenage PregnanciesIV. Eating DisordersAnorexia NervosaAnorexia NervosaAnorexia NervosaAnorexia NervosaAnorexia NervosaBulimiaBulimiaBulimiaObesityObesityObesityBinge Eating© 2017 Taylor & FrancisHealth Psychology3rd editionDeborah Fish RaginThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.© 2017 Taylor & FrancisChapter 5Risky Health Behaviors© 2017 Taylor & FrancisI. Unintentional injury and violenceII. Substance use/abuse: influence of culture, age and gender III. Risky sexual behaviorsIV. Eating disorders Chapter Themes© 2017 Taylor & FrancisDefinition: Unintentional InjuriesMotor Vehicle AccidentsViolenceI. Unintentional Injuries and Violence© 2017 Taylor & FrancisDefinition of Unintentional Injuries ◦injuries resulting from accidents or unplanned events◦Leading cause of injury & deaths ages 1–44 yearsMotor Vehicle Accidents ◦common cause of injury◦Leading cause of death for adolescents 16–20 years oldViolence ◦Includes homicide, domestic, dating, and suicideUnintentional Injury and Violence© 2017 Taylor & FrancisLeading cause of accidents/injury for adolescents ◦ Individual factorsInexperience: accident rates reduced by half after 18 months of experience (Mayhew & colleagues, 2003)Age: correlated with experienceTeenage passengers: drivers 16–17 years have 40% higher accident rate when driving with other teens (Committee on Injury, 2006)Motor Vehicle Accidents© 2017 Taylor & FrancisLeading cause of accidents/injury for adolescents ◦External Factors◦Nighttime drivingLimited visionCombined with other risky behaviors (e.g., speeding, drinking)◦Seat belt useReduces auto related fatalities (El-Sadig et al., 2004)81% of U.S. drivers use seat belts◦Type of motor vehicleMotorcycles: without helmet increases fatalities and severe head injuries (Bledsoe et al., 2002)Motor Vehicle Accidents© 2017 Taylor & FrancisViolence: Intentional use of force against another person, a community or oneselfTypes of violence◦Homicide: killing of another person◦Physical assault: hitting, shoving, kicking, or other physically aggressive behaviors◦Domestic Violence: actions (physical, sexual, emotional or intimidation/threat) intended to control or dominate another◦Self-inflicted injuries: e.g., suicide, attempted suicideViolence© 2017 Taylor & FrancisHomicide and Physical Assaults◦More than 2.2 injuries and 50,000 deaths in U.S. attributed to violence (Corso et al., 2007)Reminders: Sandy Hook Elementary School (Newtown, CT), Virginia Tech. (Blacksburg, VA), Columbine High School (Columbine, CO).CDC Youth Risk Behaviors Surveillance Survey (YRBSS)16.6% of high school students carry weapon to school 5.1% report that the weapon was a gunMales four times more likely to carry weapon than femalesViolence© 2017 Taylor & FrancisViolence: High School Student DataTABLE 5.3Violence-Related Behavior among Adolescents: 2015Percentage of high school students who carried a weapon* by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. Source: Kann, L., McManus, T., Harris, W.A., et. al. (2016). Youth risk behavior surveillance- United States 2015. MMWR Surveillance Summary 65, SS-6, 1–174. Carried a Weapon Carried a GunCategory Female Male Total Female Male TotalRace/Ethnicity 2 2 2 2 2 2White 8.1 28.0 18.1 1.4 9.6 5.5Black 6.2 17.6 12.4 1.7 9.6 6.0Hispanic 7.1 20.2 13.7 1.9 6.5 4.3Grade 2 2 2 2 2 29 6.6 24.6 16.1 1.2 7.0 4.410 7.2 25.5 16.3 1.6 8.8 5.211 8.0 23.0 16.0 1.4 9.0 5.512 8.0 23.4 15.8 1.7 9.7 5.7Total Grade 7.5 24.3 16.2 1.6 9.7 5.3© 2017 Taylor & FrancisDomestic Violence ◦Definition: physically abusive relationship between two persons, for example, spouses or intimate partners◦Expanded definition: all above plus:Elder abuse: physical or emotional maltreatment of older persons by caregiver/familyChild abuse: the physical mistreatment of a child by an adultEmotional abuse: psychological intimidation and trauma that can include physical actsViolence© 2017 Taylor & FrancisDating Violence ◦Definition: Aggressive and abusive behavior between individuals in committed relationships◦<10% of females reported being physically hurt by dating partner (Kann, McManus, & Harris, 2016)Violence© 2017 Taylor & FrancisDomestic Violence Help◦Confidential hotlines◦Counseling Services◦Domestic Violence Shelters◦Hospital Emergency DepartmentsViolence© 2017 Taylor & FrancisSelf-inflicted Injury: Suicide ◦11th leading cause of death in the U.S.Significant gender and age differences in suicide ratesSuicide Rate by GenderSuicide is 4 times more prevalent among males than femalesOlder male suicide rate: 29.8 per 100,000 persons for men 75+ yrs.Female suicide rate: 9.1 per 100,000 persons for women 45–54 yrs. Ratio of Suicide by AgePersons 75+ years of age: 1 suicide for every four attempts (1:4)Young adults: 1 suicide for every 100–200 attempts (1:100–200)Violence© 2017 Taylor & FrancisSelf-Inflicted Injury:

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