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Chapter 3 PPT

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Slide 1Slide 2Chapter ThemesGlobal Health ProblemsCommunicable DiseasesPandemic Influenza PhaseCommunicable DiseasesCommunicable DiseasesCommunicable DiseasesEstimated TB Rates in 2006Communicable DiseasesCommunicable DiseasesCommunicable DiseasesCommunicable DiseasesCommunicable DiseasesRecurring DiseasesRecurring DiseaseRecurring DiseaseRecurring DiseasesChronic DiseasesChronic DiseasesChronic Illness-Chronic DiseasesChronic DiseasesChronic DiseasesChronic DiseasesChronic DiseasesChronic DiseasesChronic DiseasesChronic DiseasesSlide 31II. Global Health OrganizationsGlobal Health OrganizationsWorld Health Organization (WHO)WHO ActivitiesWHO ActivitiesThe Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent SocietiesThe Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent SocietiesThe Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent SocietiesMedecins Sans FrontieresHealth PolicyIII. Health PolicyU.S. Isolation and ContainmentHealth Policy: Cuba Isolation and ContainmentIV. Economic Consequences of Poor HealthWho is affectedIndividual Health and Community Outcomes© 2017 Taylor & FrancisHealth Psychology3rd editionDeborah Fish RaginThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.© 2017 Taylor & FrancisChapter 3Global Communicable and Chronic Disease© 2017 Taylor & FrancisI. Global Health ProblemsII. Global Health OrganizationsIII. Health PolicyIV. Economic Consequences of Poor HealthChapter Themes© 2017 Taylor & FrancisCommunicable Diseases: ◦Animal-to-Human Transmission◦Human-to-Human TransmissionRecurring DiseasesChronic DiseasesMeasures of Life Expectancy & Quality of LifeGlobal Health Problems© 2017 Taylor & FrancisEpidemics and Pandemics◦Epidemics: diseases affecting large populations in contiguous geographic areaExample: Athenian Plague/Ebola Virus/ Glanders◦Pandemics: diseases affecting large contiguous and non-contiguous regions worldwideExample: Hemorrhagic Plague (Black Death), HIV/AIDS virus◦Can result fromanimal-to-human transmission (e.g., Avian Bird Flu)human-to-human transmission (e.g., A/H1N1 flu or tuberculosis)Communicable Diseases© 2017 Taylor & FrancisThe A/H1N1 flu reached Stage 6 of the WHO influenza phases by June 2009Pandemic Influenza Phase© 2017 Taylor & FrancisCommunicable Diseases Sierra LeoneLiberiaGuineaNigeriaMaliUnited States of AmericaItalySenegalSpain United KingdomTOTAL0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000141221067538042084111128673395548092536861000011315Ebola Prevalence and Mortality Data, December 2015Ebola DeathsEbola IncidenceRaw Number of Cases© 2017 Taylor & FrancisTuberculosis (TB)◦Highly contagious, communicable disease◦Transmitted directly (person to person) or indirectly through environmental agents (e.g., air)◦Active cases of TB (untreated or ineffectively treated) transmittable to othersInfection rate: 1 person per month (10–15 people per year)◦Latent cases not transmittable to othersCarrier will test positive without signs of illnessCommunicable Diseases© 2017 Taylor & FrancisTuberculosis (TB) Epidemic ◦Major TB epidemic in U.S. and Europe during 18th and 19th centuries◦Currently TB rates differ by countryU.S. has one of lowest TB rates worldwideHighest rates found in Eastern Europe, Asia and sub-Saharan AfricaCommunicable Diseases© 2017 Taylor & FrancisEstimated TB Rates in 2006Highest rates of TB occur in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia© 2017 Taylor & FrancisChildhood Viral Diseases◦Are all preventable ◦Are infrequent occurrences in developed (high-income) countries◦More prevalent in developing (low- and middle-income countries)◦Primary childhood viral diseasesMeaslesChickenpoxPolioCommunicable Diseases© 2017 Taylor & FrancisChildhood Viral Diseases: Measles◦Symptoms: fever, rash on face/neck spreading to torso◦Can lead to complications, death◦Symptoms can include pneumonia, severe diarrhea, encephalitis (inflammation of brain)◦High contagion and potentially fatal children <5 years old◦Highest fatalities: refugee camps; accounts for 25% of all child deaths Communicable Diseases© 2017 Taylor & FrancisChildhood Viral Diseases: Chickenpox◦Cause: varicella zoster virus◦Symptoms: blistering pox on torso, head and extremities ◦Secrete small amount of pus◦Rarely a serious illness if contracted during childhood90+% of children successfully overcome virus◦Usually immune for life once contracted◦For adults, can cause respiratory illness, death Communicable Diseases© 2017 Taylor & FrancisChildhood Viral Diseases: Poliomyelitis◦Common name: Polio◦Highly contagious viral disease◦Causes severe damage in approximately 2% of peopleDamages cells in spinal cord Attacks muscle controlling nervesCan result in partial or total paralysis of extremities ◦Multiple waves of polio epidemics in the U.S. in first half of 1900sCommunicable Diseases© 2017 Taylor & FrancisChildhood Viral Diseases: Vaccines◦Vaccines Defined: medicines containing small amount of live or dead virusPrompts immune system to build antibodies to destroy foreign viruses◦Goals:Immunize people from contracting diseasesReduce symptom severity Reduce spread of diseases, especially childhood viral diseasesCommunicable Diseases© 2017 Taylor & FrancisRecurring Diseases Defined:Largely preventable recurring diseasesTransmitted to humans from insects or bacteriaEnvironmental conditions are a predisposing factorCommon recurring diseases:◦Cholera◦Malaria◦Parasites Recurring Diseases© 2017 Taylor & FrancisCholera◦Cause: intestinal infection caused by vibrio cholerae bacteriaBacteria found in contaminated food, water, human fecesLinked to poor environmental management, unsafe water conditions◦Symptoms: severe dehydration, kidney failure Results in death in 10–20% of cases◦Prevention and eradication of cholera linked to health policyRecurring Disease© 2017 Taylor & FrancisMalaria◦Caused by parasite PlasmodiumTransmitted from person to person through female anopheles mosquitoCan be fatal if contracted by children◦Most prevalent in hot, humid, tropical climates The


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