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Chapter 2 PPT

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Slide 1Slide 2Chapter ThemesMeasuring HealthMeasuring HealthBorrowing from EpidemiologyInfant Mortality Raw DataInfant Mortality RatesBorrowing from EpidemiologyBorrowing from Epidemiology: Raw StatisticsBorrowing from Epidemiology: RatesBorrowing from EpidemiologyII. MethodologyQualitative StudiesQualitative StudiesCorrelational StudiesCorrelational StudiesCorrelational StudiesExperimental StudiesExperimental StudiesExperimental StudiesExperimental StudiesExperimental StudiesIntervention StudiesEthical Considerations in Experimental DesignEthical Considerations in Experimental DesignQuasi-Experimental Intervention StudiesIII. Research Ethics and PolicyReactions to the Word ‘research’Tuskegee Syphilis StudyTuskegee Study (cont.)Tuskegee StudyNuremburg Code of 1947Nuremburg Code of 1947 (cont.)Study of Interpersonal Dynamics (Stanford Prison Experiment)Research without Informed Consent© 2017 Taylor & FrancisHealth Psychology3rd editionDeborah Fish RaginThis multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.© 2017 Taylor & FrancisChapter 2Research Methods© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisI. Measuring HealthII. MethodologyIII. Research Ethics & PolicyChapter Themes© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisBorrowing from EpidemiologySummaryMeasuring Health© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisBorrowing from epidemiology◦EpidemiologyThe study of the etiology (causes) and spread of health status or eventsThe application of that knowledge to control the health diseases and related problems◦EpidemiologistsStudy the impact of diseases on prior generationsDetermines the potential risk of disease to current & future generationsMeasuring Health© 2017 Taylor & FrancisBorrowing from EpidemiologyMortality vs. MorbidityRaw Statistic: total number of cases for specific death/illnessMortality vs. Morbidity RatesRates: raw statistic adjusted for population and time frame Mortality: number of deaths Morbidity: number of persons with specific illness that may contribute to mortalityMortality rate: death in a population during a specific time periodMorbidity: specific illness that may contribute to mortality in a population during a specific time period© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisInfant Mortality Raw DataNumber of Infant Deaths in Nine Industrialized CountriesFinlandDenmarkSwedenSwitzerlandJapanGermanyFranceUnited KingdomUnited States0500010000150002000025000124229251331208022842598299023215Total Number of Infant Deaths in 2014© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisRates of Infant Deaths in Nine Industrialized CountriesInfant Mortality RatesFinlandDenmarkSwedenSwitzerlandJapanGermanyFranceUnited KingdomUnited States012345672.24.02.23.92.13.23.33.95.8Infant Mortality Rates in 2014United Nations (2016) Population & Vital Statistics Report. Technical Notes. Table 3: Live births, deaths and infant deaths. Latest Year available. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/vitstats/© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisFour Leading Causes of Infant Deaths ◦Birth Defects◦Premature Births◦Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)◦Maternal Health Factors (e.g., lack of prenatal care, mother’s substance use)Borrowing from Epidemiology© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisGross Measures of Population Health Status: Raw StatisticsIncidence◦number of new cases of diseasePrevalence◦ total number of cases of diseaseRelative Risk ◦risk to members of exposed group of acquiring diseaseBorrowing from Epidemiology: Raw Statistics© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisRate Illness/Cause Sample CalculationMortality Automobile AccidentAutomobile fatalities in 2005 in U.S. X 100,000 U.S. Population in 2005Morbidity HypertensionHypertension in 2005 in U.S. X 100,000 U.S. Population in 2005Incidence HIV in UkraineNew HIV Cases in 2004 in Ukraine X 100,000 Ukrainian Population in 2004Prevalence HIV in UkraineAll HIV Cases in 2004 in Ukraine X 100,000 Ukrainian Population in 2004Relative Risk HIV in UkraineHIV Cases in 2004 of drug users in Ukraine X 100,000 HIV Cases in 20004 of non-drug users in UkraineBorrowing from Epidemiology: Rates© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisGross Measures of Etiology (cause) ◦Proximal: immediate, precipitating causes of health & illnesse.g., gastrointestinal distress caused by food poisoning◦Distal: Remote in time, predisposing causes of health & illnesse.g., hypertension caused by atrial septal defect (hole in wall of heart)◦Proximal and Distal causes may include individual, situational, or environmental factors◦Explains timing of illness and probable causeBorrowing from Epidemiology© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisQualitative StudiesCorrelational StudiesExperimental StudiesIntervention StudiesEthical Considerations in Experimental DesignQuasi-experimental Intervention StudiesII. Methodology© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisQualitative Studies◦Method for gathering largely non-statistical data help explain behaviors or outcomes◦Provides rich contextual data◦Allows for in-depth exploration of issueQualitative Studies© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisMethodologyCase Studies◦ In-depth analysis of rare or unique eventsFocus Groups◦Gather information and generate insight through interaction by small group of informantsInterviews◦Structured and unstructured questions administered face-to-face.◦Structured: closed-ended (e.g., yes/no) responses◦Unstructured: open-ended (e.g., descriptive), unrestricted responsesQualitative Studies© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisCorrelational StudiesExamines relationship between two interval-level variables◦Do two variables share something in common?◦Correlation does not imply causality◦Correlation does not test for cause and effect.Correlational Studies© 2017 Taylor & Francis© 2017 Taylor & FrancisPearson Correlation Coefficient (r) ◦Test statistic measuring strength and direction of relationship◦Positive correlation: as one


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