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Inorganic Chemistry

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1/8 NotesInorganic Chemistry- Matter – stuff that has mass and takes up spaceo All matter is made up of elements- Elemento Life requires really only 25 elementso Carbono Hydrogeno Oxygeno Sulfur- Compounds – two or more elements together to make a substance- Atom – particle of matter, smallest component of an element that contains physical and chemical properties of that element, neutral (have no charge)- Subatomic particle – particle smaller than an atom, building blocks of an atomo Protons - particle with positive charge, ALWAYS equals number of electronso Neutrons – particle with no chargeo Electrons – particle with negative charge- Atomic number – number of protons in the nucleus of the atom, also is number of electrons- Atomic mass – protons and neutrons in an atomo Dalton – atomic mass unit- Isotopes – two atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutronso Different masses of the same element- Organization of atom (pattern)o Valence shells – each ring around nucleus that contain electrons, further away from nucleus, less stable electrons are First – 2 electrons Second – 8 electrons- Pair in groups of 2 Third – 8 electronso Periodic table – each column based on number of valence electrons in outermost shell First column – all have one in outer shell Second column – all have two in outer shell- Molecules – atoms combine by chemical bondingo Covalent bond – strongest bond, sharing of electrons to fill outermost valence shell Ex. H2 (H - H) Can form between atoms of the same element or atoms of different elements- Ex. H2O or CH4 Nonpolar covalent bond - electrons are shared equally Polar covalent bond – unequally sharing of electrons by the two atoms Polar and nonpolar compounds do not like each othero Double covalent bond Ex. O2 (O = O)o Ionic bond – weakest bond, two atoms are so unequal in their attraction for valence electrons that one atom strips an electron completely from the other Creates positively and negatively charged elements Ex. NaClo Hydrogen bond – very weak bond, represented by dotted line, transient bondo Important because everywhere (ionic & hydrogen)- Noble gases – valence shell is fullWater- Water – polar covalent moleculeo Forms up to 4 hydrogen bonds for each water moleculeo Does not mean constantly have 4 bonds to it, but can form up to 4- Solvent – able to dissolve one or more substanceso Aqueous solution - if water is solvent Forms a sphere of hydration to break compounds- Solute – substance dissolved- Able to dissolve most things, because polar- Can dissolve ionic compoundso Breaks down bonds to make dissolve- Solvent for other polar compounds- Does not dissolve nonpolar compoundso Instead need to use a nonpolar solvent- Hydrophilic – can be dissolved in water- Hydrophobic – cannot be dissolved in water- Cohesion – ability to stick to itself, hydrogen bonds hold substance togethero Surface tension – how difficult it is (measure of the force necessary) to break or stretch surface of a liquid- Adhesion – reacts to a different compound on the outside, clinging of one substance to another, sticking to things different than self (sucking water up a straw)- Water moderates temperatures on Eartho Heat – total amount of kinetic energy in a body of matter Kinetic energy – energy of motion Ocean has a high specific heato Temperature – average amount of kinetic energy in a body of matter Hard to change temperature of water- Acts as heat banko Heat of vaporization – quantity of heat that a liquid must absorb for 1g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous stateo Evaporative cooling – as liquid evaporates, surface of liquid remain behind


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