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Three Gorges Dam Aswan High DamWhen Began 1994, completed 2006 1960’sWhere Yangtze River, China Nile River, Egypt (Aswan)Why built - HEP (world’s largest producer)- Flood control- Increased navigation- Flood control in delta region- Replace dam built by Britain in 19th century- Increase access to water- Electricity Benefits Environmental- Reduced coal consumption and greenhouse gas emissions- Less atmospheric pollution (but more water pollutionEconomic/Sociological- Displaced peoples’ lives may be improved because they are removedfrom flood prone areas- Electricity Environmental- Increase in phytoplankton during flood in Nasser; fish populations thriveEconomic/Sociological- Business and economic growth- Job growth- Industrialization- HEP- Total control of Nile- Protection from floods- HEP sold to neighbors- Prevent famine- Provides water (irrigation, agriculture, prevent droughtDrawbacks Environmental1. Pollution increaseda. Wastewater released into river and not swept away as quickly before leaving water murky and pollutedb. New settlements along river dueto economic development and increased jobs increase the amount of raw sewage that flows into river2. Erosion/Sedimentationa. Less sediment downstream because slower flow due to dami. Valuable farmland submergedii. Downstream river banksvulnerable to sediment build upiii. Benthic (low level water)sediment build up causes biological damage and reduces biodiversityEnvironmental- Nutrients good for plants (silicate and phosphates) trapped behind dam; now farmers must use fertilizer which hurts environment- Silt gathers at bottom of Nasser; dam can hold less water- Sediment cannot reach coast causing coastal erosion- Change climate- No more flooding causes soil salinization- Sinking delta (no new soil added, rising sea level, 30% delta will be submerged by 2030, salt water threatens Egypt’s agricultural economy)- Construction requires use of valuable topsoil- Flooding behind damEconomic/Sociological- Increased use of fertilizer increasesprices of products farmed for consumer3. Landslidesa. The sliding down of a mass of earth or rock from a mountain or cliffb. Erosion in reservoir (because of rise in water) causes frequent and major landslides4. Wildlifea. Dam construction contributes tofunctional extinction of species by habitat destruction and increased ship travelSociological/Economic1. People displaceda. 1.13 million displacedb. Reasonsi. Hazardous sites (rockfalls, landslides)ii. Reservoir submerged 13 cities, 140 towns and 1,350 villages2. Cultural and archeological damagea. Ancient undocumented cultural relics submergedb. Archeological sites destroyedc. Many sites forced to be moved to higher groundd. Natural beauty of area marred and altered3. Corruption4. High cost5. Human rights concernsa. Claim discrimination taking placein displaced peopleb. Poor living conditions for those relocatedc. No new jobs/skills taught to displaced- Increased phytoplankton in Nasser causes fish populations to decreasein Mediterranean coast (hurts fishing communities there because their economic base is eroding)- No more flooding prevents salt from being leached from soil whichdamages monuments- Rapid population increase in delta- Nubians displaced due to dangers as a result of

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