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1. What are the two main themes of the book?Purpose (Goals of Political Action) and Power (How can actors achieve their purposes) are the two main themes. 2. What is the “science” of international relations?Understanding the ongoing debates about the most compelling theories3. What are political theories?A generalized explanation of a set of essentially similar phenomenon (generalized). (Explanation, Prediction, and Prescription) 4. What is Waltz’s system level of analysis? 1. Individual or Specific Level (analyzing human nature of characteristics of individuals)2. State Level analyzes the nature of states (some governments might be more prone than others)3. System Level (Preferred): sees the causes on an international system 5. How did feudalism differ from the Roman Empire?Roman Empire was where a single Government dominated all of Europe, and Feudalism is a political system in which individuals within a society have obligations based on class (king, nobility, peasantry) and no single ruler has absolute authority over a given territory.6. Why was the Treaty of Westphalia important? This ended the thirty year war, and enshrined the status of Sovereign states. Exercised the existence and rights of sovereign States7. What does sovereignty mean? That each state had complete authority over their own authority (No one could challenge ruler’s power or no one outside could say what should go on inside the territory) 8. What is the balance of power system?A balance of power meant that no one state was sufficiently powerful to defeat the others. This balance of power was both a fact and a policy. No single state could gain enough power to destroy all the others, and many states made the maintenance of a balance an explicit goal of policy9. What is nationalism and why is it important?The doctrine that recognizes the nation as the primary unit of political allegiance. Everyone considered a citizen, with a stake inthe government10. What was Napoleon’s main contribution to warfare? He overthrew many of the limitations on war that had characterized the classical balance of power era. After Napoleon, war became national war, which engaged entire populations against one another. 11. What was the Concert of Europe?An agreement reached at the Congress of Vienna, in 1815, in which major European powers pledged to cooperate to maintain peace and stability. 12. How did nationalism relate to multi-national empiresin the 19th century?In areas where multinational empires prevailed (the Russian, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman Empires), nationalism created pressure to break large states into smaller parts. 13. What was the Triple Alliance?The Triple Alliance consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy, which pledged to come to each other’s aid if one of them were attacked by France or Russia, a Pre-World War I Agreement 14. What even started World War I?Serbian Nationalists who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand (the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne). In response Austria insisted Serbia submit to Austrian Control. However, this would damage Russia’s goals, in which Russia backed Serbia. Germany,who saw they would be ruined if Russia defeated Austria, backedAustria. France, who could not let Germany defeat Russia, backs Russia. Britain, who feared Germany might defeat France and Russia, backed its allies.15. What was Neville Chamberlain’s plan to avoid world war?Advocated a policy of appeasement. This was a strategy of avoiding war by acceding to the demands of rival powers (in this case Nazi Germany).16. Who were the Allies of World War II?Germany, Italy, and Japan versus France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, and United States17. What is collective security?The major method by which leaders after World War I envisioned preventing war was collective security, whereby all states would agree that if any state initiated a war, all the others would come to the defense of the state under attack. This became very difficult to practice (Italy evaded Abyssinia, and in return there was only economic sanctions). 18. How long did the Cold War last?The cold war lasted from 1946 through 1991. This eventually became the “nuclear arms race.” 19. What was the greatest crisis of the Cold War?The Cuban Missile Crisis. Soviet Union began to install medium-range missiles in Cuba (less than 100 miles from the U.S. Coast). US threatened military retaliation and blockaded Cuba.20. Must is Mutually Assured Destruction?The fact that neither country could get away with a surprise attack—and that both U.S. and Russian leaders understood this—provided increased stability. A situation in which each side in a conflict possesses enough armaments to destroy the other even after suffering a surprise attack.21. What were the goals of the Bretton Woods Agreements?The system that guided economic arrangements among the advanced industrial states in the post–World War II era. It included the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), thefixed exchange rate system, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Bank. Bretton Woods was a resort in New Hampshire where the negotiations took place. One goal was to provide for expanded international trade, in order. A second goal was to provide for stability in the international financial system (This was accomplished through the development of an international currency system based on the U.S. dollar) to increase prosperity22. What are superpowers?The superpowers in the Cold War often waged war through allies,or “proxies,” in the developing world, such as in the Korean War (1950–1953), the Ogaden War between Somalia and Ethiopia (1978), and the Soviet-Afghan War (1979–1989).23. What is a multi-national corporation?A company with operations in more than one country; a type of nonstate actor; also called “transnational corporation.”24. What are the oldest (and major) theories of international relations?Realism and Liberalism (is concerned with power and purpose; it asserts that states have a range of goals beyond accruing power and is more skeptical of the role of power in achieving state aims.)25. What is realism?Realism is an approach that focuses almost exclusively on power, viewing power as the main determinant of outcomesand the pursuit of power as the main determinant of policies.26. What are rational actors?Rational Actors are states “have consistent, ordered preferences,and that they calculate the costs and benefits

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IRSC INR 2002 - Study Guide

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