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Idea of Hellenism by Alexander the GreatOverall point to understand world culture in 2014 is to understand the point of Judaism and Greek. Our culture is mix of the twoChristianity and Islam are also inherits of Greek cultureWhat is G-d?One hand impersonal, invisible force that is behind the movement of nature, planet, no form of human being but force that directsIdea of the force from Greek mythologyOther hand, passionate G-dAnthropomorphic= human lifeApocrypha: series of writings written by Jews in Hellenistic period, included in Greek translation of Hebrew bibleSeparate booksMost Christians as part of old testamentJews do not consider these books as part of Bible—but give us a lot of information of period of Greeks and Romans2nd Maccabeesoriginally written in GreekMaccabean Revolt –began 167 with taking of Temple area by King of SyriaTook over area and made sanctuary for Zeus and forbade Jewish studyEnforced participation of Jews in cult of ZeusJudea’s Maccabee retakes temple area—reestablish worship of Jewish G-d= story of HanukkahConflict of Judaism and HellenismJews do win—even though militarily achieved independence Hazmenian Kings from Judea still have Greek philosophy2nd Maccabees—transitional documentDeuteronimistic view of history—all of history interpreted people keeping Sinai covenantReward to punishmentHow Maccabees reflect this view of historyWhy do Jews have horrible things happen to them ?Because they left the covenant by adopting Greek ways and no longer following the covenant so G-d punishes them and then fixes it2nd Maccabees: reflects Deuteronimsitic view of historypunishes them strongly but with goal that they will repentif they sin they are punishedhow succeed?Because they pray before every battle—keep the Sabbath they are piousWhat happens to the Righteous ones that have died?Persecuted and suffering because keeping terms of the covenantExamples of people that repentedLead to nation being restored=died for the nation2nd Maccabees earliest lead shows that righteous individuals that suffered will be restored in the future—reward in an afterlifelevel of individual reward and punishmentafterlife idea of why righteous diewicked might be prospering now but will suffer in afterlifeconcept of Martyrdom—special people undergo horrible deaths for the sake of G-dimpact on G-d of people repenting—concept of martyrs very important in Christianity and IslamStory of Judaism and Emergence of ChristianityApocalypticism1. Dualism: idea sharp contrast in world between good and evilthis world in control by evil powers : ultimately run by Satankingdom of G-d will be in control in next world2. Final Judgment/ Resurrection of the Deadappear between two worlds world of Stan and world of G-dproceeded by massive war in Good and evil3. End is Nearbelieve your living in the end timesworst things are closer you are to the end4. Eschatologicalhaving to do with the endhow the world will endfigure who is going to be a saviorfigure: priest or king or prophet, or angel, or g-dsome type of savior figure defeat evil and rule forever5. Apocalypserevelation of the secrets of the end timeOrigins of Christianity as Apocalyspticism Jewish MovementSongs of Soloman example of Apocalytpic textEssenes:Pharisees:Sadducees3 sects (philosophies) found in works of Josephus—major source for ancient Judaism in Greek and Roman periodJewish, Christian RelationsImportant understand roots of Christianity and how it comes from Judaism and becomes a new religionJesus and PaulWell within JudaismPeople make claim consciously making a new religionSaw himself as a Jews—message to Jews primarily to other JewsMessage? Apocalyptic world viewG-d was coming soon-evil powers in the world would lose their power—Satan would be defeatedJesus conquering kingdoms of Satan as bringing in kingdom of G-d .Active in 30’sCrucified by Romans under Pontius PilotJesus as Apocalyptic preacherPaul: creates a revolutionBegins as persecutor of ChurchReligious experience: Jesus appears to him to be a faithful followerEffective missionary goes through Greek, Turkey, and finds number of churchesChurch: Greek word means assembly“Ekklesia”—church“Synagogue”- also means assemblyPaul finds these churches—his mission primarily to non-JewsPreaching gospel: good news of Jesus the Messiah to non-JewsBelieves Jesus will return soon –apocalyptic-You do not have to keep the commandments but have to act ethicallyRighteousness not through the commandments but faith in JesusMission to gentilesPaul believes Jesus was messiah1st century not 2 separate religions but can easily develop as new ideaPaul’s Attitude towards JudaismJews people who do not believe in Jesus as MessiahRomans 9-11—not anger at this point—feels close kinship with JewsTheological Problem for PaulIf G-d promised Jewish people blessed through him and promises forever if Jews rejecting that then G-d promise has failed maybe Gd not trustworthy with his promiseGoes through a lot of argumentsSpiritual Israel argument :11-5 –Paul points out that promise was never to ALL Jews but promise was fulfilled only through remnant of people as long as some Jews accepted it then can’t say physical Israel has failed11-11 –G-ds plan all along that Jews would reject the Gospelrejected Gospel so it would go to non-JewsJewish rejection necessary for salvation of entire world—jealous Jews follow the bandwagon then promises will be fulfilledAlso concerned of non-Jewish attitude toward Jews is concerning: concerned about negative attitudes towards JewsUses analogy “they are like olive trees now gentiles been grafted to the tree so they should not feel arrogant toward other Jews”Comes full circle saying physical Israel will be saved as well: all is not lost Jews can be saved—fact remains Jews not people cursed forever should be persecuted but G-ds people and will eventually come around and be treated with respectShouldn’t persecute JewsMathew:: Different world then PaulJesus’s sermon on the Mountain examples of his interpretation of Torah and what righteousness consists ofMathews position about Jesus’s position: is righteous comes from keeping commandments but not only through there written but from son of G-d that’s actually harder to keepMore difficult then have in Hebrew Bible: requires more mercyBe merciful and forgiving in all types of situationsDo G-ds will then do it not only through keeping the commandments as written but also going

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FSU REL 3607 - Religion Study Guide

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