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EXP 4640: Psychology of LanguageMichael KaschakSpring 2014This is a “study guide” utilizing the quiz questions we were asked in class.It contains all of the questions, except 15, 16, and Quiz 10 (37, 38, 39, 40).Quiz Questions1. What is meant by, “Language as a joint activity”? Conversation: Language is something we do with other people.2. A Phone is a Language Sound.A Phoneme is an abstract representation of sound types.3. Which of these is not a possible combination?Front and Velar4. Which of these are Argument-Taking Words (where the meaning of the world implies that there’s something else)?Verbs and Prepositions5. Peripheral Construction and phrases that don’t follow the grammatical requirements of a language. “Rule-Breakers”6. Syntactic structures (Trees) are Hierarchical and Branching.7. Which of these is not Argument Taking?Noun8. How many possible sentences are there in the English language? Infinite.9. Language developed as a replacement for: GroomingThe maximum group size for chimps: 40The maximum group size for humans: 150 (4x Magnitude)10. The vocal tract evolved for linguistic communication.The descent of the larynx allowed us to use a richer palette, creating more sounds.11. Theory of Mind involves: Intention Reading, Perspective Taking, and Joint Attention12. Evidence for “Language as a social adaptation.”:Brains are the game around the world, putting restraints on learning.Languages have a common history.Only certain kinds of linguistic patterns are easily acquired by by young children.13. Humbolt was the first person to develop the relationship between language and thought.Slobin posited “Thinking for Speaking”.The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis states that speakers of different languages perceive things differently.14. Korean uses Degree of Fit.The language Dani only uses 2 color terms.French codes the path of action, as opposed to English, which codes the manner of action.15. 16. 17. The author of the book “Verbal Behavior” is Skinner.18. Children’s social awakening occurs between: 9 - 12 Months.19. The disappearance of egocentrism is essential to the acquisition of Pronouns.20. Children's babbling shows alternation of stables, such as “badabadabada” at age 9 Months.21. Which type of word to children tend to learn first? Open: Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives22. The Mutual Exclusivity Constraint can best be described as:Children think that objects have only one label.23. The best predictor of a child's syntactic abilities between Age 2-3 is: Vocabulary Size.24. Compared to first-born and only children, later-born children acquire pronouns:Earlier25. Children's acquisition of past tense morphology is categorized by an inverted U-shaped pattern of development. False: a Regular U-shaped pattern of development26. Analogy-making plays no role in language development. False27. Variability in input generally aids language acquisition. True28. 7 Month infants show the ability to learn sequences. True29. “Horse”, “Horticulture”, “Horton” are in the same: Cohort.30. English has a Deep orthographic system, whereas Spanish has a Shallow orthographic system.31. Which of these variables affects visual word recognition?All: Frequency, Age of Acquisition, and Neighborhood Effects32. The variables that affect word recognition in the spoken and written modalities are similar.True33. Which words are ambiguous in the phrase, “The horse raced past the barn fell.”?“raced past the barn”34. Two stage theories suggest that what kind of information is considered first in sentence comprehension?Syntax35. Preferences for low or high attachment syntactic structures are the same across languages.False36. External context (Example: The world around you.) can affect the way that you initially comprehend a sentence.TrueQuiz 1037. Which of these is not an aspect of language production?Updating42. Both the accessibility of words and the syntactic constraints of your language affect where you start in producing a sentence.True43. A lemma is a phonological word representation.False44. Neuropsychological data based on brain lesions can be interpreted to suggest that languagecomprehension and production are distinct from each other.False45. Gesture is a universal aspect of spoken language.True46.People who are blind from birth gesture. True47. The OK sign in an Iconic gestureFalse, it’s an Emblem.48. The “middle finger” is a Metaphorical gesture.False, it’s an Emblem.49. Affect Displays: Indicate the emotional content of responses.50. It is possible for the content of one’s gestures to mismatch the content of one’s speech.True51. Gesture production and speech production share common neural substrates.True52. Preventing a person from gesturing has no influence on their speech.False53. Ancient Egyptians were the first to localize language in the brain. True 54. Broca’s Area is located in the visual cortex (Occipital Lobe).False: It’s located in the Frontal Lobe of the Left Hemisphere.56. Wernicke’s Area is located in the Frontal Lobe.False: It’s located at the junction of the Temporal Lobe and the Parietal Lobe57. The arcuate fasciculus is part of the Wernicke-Geschwind

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