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MIDTERM REVIEWPerrault: began transfer from oral o written text; introduced it o polite society (into city); wrote out the moral in every story; F. Courtier; Mother Goose 1697Brothers Grimm: children’s and household tales 1812-22; how to be a good german, nationalism,didactic (teaches a lesson), editedAfanas’ev: Russian Folk Tales 1855-64; did not rewrite, made slight changes to have the stories published, in his book the tales are fixedFairy Tale  Kind of folk tale:- Must be transmitted orally- Belongs to particular tradition- Must be secular not religious- Do not have identifiable authors and are a part f community but do not sit and compose thereFolk tale (In prose) vs. epic (inverse)vs. myth (apply to all humanity)vs. ritual (could be a part but not one)vs. memorate and fabulate (witnessed)vs. historical, every day, tall taleanimal tale vs. wonder tale (magical, fairy tale proper)animal tale: more animal tales than any other group (119 russian tales and 336+ Ukrainian tales)- Largely do not overlap with indian, Greco, western medival- Elements of pagan beliefs but not ritual- Triple repetition- Differentiated by actions of animals- Oldest tales known to the east slavsWhy cultures share fairy tales:- Genetic: an “ur-fairy tale” first told in ancient past before linguistic divisionso Problems: too much time has passed and similiarities are often found beyond the limits of a single linguistic family- Diffusionist: the fairy tale migrates from culture to cultureo Problems: difficult for stories to jump linguistic boundaries- Typological: similarities in what the stories representEast Slavic Languages: Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian and CarpathorussianWho are the Russians? (language and culture)- East slavs (Ukrainians and belarussians)- East and south slaves are slavs (Czech, pole, Bulgarian, serbs, bosnians, croats)- Satem and centum (east and west like indic, iranian, Baltic, Armenian, are eastern indoeuropeans)- Eastern (satem) indo-europeans like Germanic, italic, celtic, Hellenic are indo-europeans- Indoeuropean > eastern indo-european (satem) > Slavic > east Slavic > russianKurgan hypothesis: homeland north of black and Caspian seas, expansion in 5th-4th century BCEAnatolian hypothesis: homeland in Caucasus, expansion began 9th-6th century BCERussian ritual milieu:Ditheism/ dvoeverie: Double faith, double belief- Simultaneous subscription to 2 different possibly contradictory belief systems- Characteristic of early Russian “folk Christianity” observed Christian rites but stayed with numerous pagan (pre-christian) beliefs and practices- Pagan Russian beliefs and practices derived from indo European and are largely common to the east slavs3 social functiones (castes)1. Rulers (lawgivers and priests) = Jupiter (Zeus)2. Warriors = mars (Ares)3. Producers (peasants) = Quirinus (Rome) Perun: when 1 and 2 come together (mother of thor)- God of sky/thunder and retinue (larovit/svetovit is his avatar)- Symbol: oak on hill top, enemy: dragon  St. George, ElijahVeles/Volos: when 1 and 3 come together (elysian fields)- god of underworld which is on earth- Symbol: cattle  St. Nicholas, bear- Functions taken over by bearBear (paw): protector of domestic animals- Peasants called bear paw “livestock god” and hung it on their live stock barns (up to 20th century)- Veles/volos was called livestock god in 12th century- Symbol of fertilityo Peasants called newlyweds: bearso Bear as bridegroom in fairy tales (ex. Ivanko the Bear’s son) Bear does NOT play that role in FOX AND HARESpirits of house and farmstead: helpful vs harmful- Domovoi: helpful house spirit- Bannik: harmful bath-house spirit- Ovinnik: very harmful threshing-barn spiritSpirits of forest, water and field: all demons, linked to unclead dead (suicides or unbaptized)- Polevoi: spirit of field- Leshii: spirit of forest (wood goblin)- Vodianoi, Rusalka: spirits of lakes and rivers*folk spirits appear more often in memorates and fabulates than in fairy talesLubok (chapbook or popular print) – cheap Russian booksClassifying Fairy Tales:“Finnish school” antti Aarne and Stith Thompson (system known as A-T for Aarne-Thompson)- The types of the fairy tale (Helsinki 1961: several reprints)- Revise and expanded in 2004 by Hans-Jorg Uther- A-T system assigns a number to each type (plot) of folktale recorded throughout theworldo Golden Bird (prince ivan and the firebird) tales: A-T 550o Cinderella Tales: A-T 510 AEast Slavic (Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian) uses the Comparative Index f Types: The East Slavic Folktale by Barag et al. (known by Russians as SUS)- Numbers in SUS match A-T system whenever possible- Russians combine A-T types (classified under initial tale type)- Ukrainian and Belarusian tellers may combine first 4 types, Russians ONLY combine as many as 8 types How are fairy tales composed and transmitted: - Two serious attempts to answer these questions (intiated in 1920’s by Americans and Russians)- Oral-Formulaic Theory: Milman Parry and Albert B. Lord (paraphrased by Haney)o Developed by Milman Parry in the 1920’s to explain how Homeric epic could have been passed through many generations purely through word of mouth and why its formulas appeared in the way that they dido Parry studied Yugoslav oral poets in their own elemento His work was continued by Albert b. Lord (his student)o How epics could be passed down by word of mouth- Prague School Structuralism: Peter Bogatyrev and Roman Jakobson (paraphrased by Jakobson)- Both schools accept that:o Folklore is an oral-tradition form of creativityo It is a fluid tradition, not memorized thus no fixed texto The question of authorship (who wrote it first?) is not asked Imagine writing doesn’t exist. How can you pass on a story to others?- Package it in a memorable form so that not only you can pass it on to the posterity but so that the entire community can do so too. However, story is not rote-memorized yet neither it is improvised in a broad senseIn pre-literature cultures, this ‘memorable’ form is called oral narrative:- Oral epic narrative, such as Parry and Lord studied in Yugoslavia, is performed in accompaniment with music and subject to strict metrical conditions- These conditions allow epic poets to develop and memorize versatile phrases, that when repeated, fill beats in a line- By filling out the line in this fashion, the poet gives him/herself time to improvise details of the story- Oral prose narrative, although not

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