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MIDTERM REVIEW Perrault began transfer from oral o written text introduced it o polite society into city wrote out the moral in every story F Courtier Mother Goose 1697 Brothers Grimm children s and household tales 1812 22 how to be a good german nationalism didactic teaches a lesson edited Afanas ev Russian Folk Tales 1855 64 did not rewrite made slight changes to have the stories published in his book the tales are fixed Fairy Tale Kind of folk tale Must be transmitted orally Belongs to particular tradition Must be secular not religious Do not have identifiable authors and are a part f community but do not sit and compose there Folk tale In prose vs epic inverse vs myth apply to all humanity vs ritual could be a part but not one vs memorate and fabulate witnessed vs historical every day tall tale animal tale vs wonder tale magical fairy tale proper animal tale more animal tales than any other group 119 russian tales and 336 Ukrainian tales Largely do not overlap with indian Greco western medival Elements of pagan beliefs but not ritual Triple repetition Differentiated by actions of animals Oldest tales known to the east slavs Why cultures share fairy tales Genetic an ur fairy tale first told in ancient past before linguistic divisions o Problems too much time has passed and similiarities are often found beyond the limits of a single linguistic family Diffusionist the fairy tale migrates from culture to culture o Problems difficult for stories to jump linguistic boundaries Typological similarities in what the stories represent East Slavic Languages Russian Ukrainian Belarusian and Carpathorussian Who are the Russians language and culture East slavs Ukrainians and belarussians East and south slaves are slavs Czech pole Bulgarian serbs bosnians croats Satem and centum east and west like indic iranian Baltic Armenian are eastern indoeuropeans Eastern satem indo europeans like Germanic italic celtic Hellenic are indo europeans Indoeuropean eastern indo european satem Slavic east Slavic russian Kurgan hypothesis homeland north of black and Caspian seas expansion in 5th 4th century BCE Anatolian hypothesis homeland in Caucasus expansion began 9th 6th century BCE Russian ritual milieu Ditheism dvoeverie Double faith double belief Simultaneous subscription to 2 different possibly contradictory belief systems Characteristic of early Russian folk Christianity observed Christian rites but stayed with numerous pagan pre christian beliefs and practices Pagan Russian beliefs and practices derived from indo European and are largely common to the east slavs 3 social functiones castes 1 Rulers lawgivers and priests Jupiter Zeus 2 Warriors mars Ares 3 Producers peasants Quirinus Rome Perun when 1 and 2 come together mother of thor God of sky thunder and retinue larovit svetovit is his avatar Symbol oak on hill top enemy dragon St George Elijah Veles Volos when 1 and 3 come together elysian fields god of underworld which is on earth Symbol cattle St Nicholas bear Functions taken over by bear Bear paw protector of domestic animals Peasants called bear paw livestock god and hung it on their live stock barns up to 20th century Veles volos was called livestock god in 12th century Symbol of fertility o Peasants called newlyweds bears o Bear as bridegroom in fairy tales ex Ivanko the Bear s son Bear does NOT play that role in FOX AND HARE Spirits of house and farmstead helpful vs harmful Domovoi helpful house spirit Bannik harmful bath house spirit Ovinnik very harmful threshing barn spirit Spirits of forest water and field all demons linked to unclead dead suicides or unbaptized Polevoi spirit of field Leshii spirit of forest wood goblin Vodianoi Rusalka spirits of lakes and rivers folk spirits appear more often in memorates and fabulates than in fairy tales Lubok chapbook or popular print cheap Russian books Classifying Fairy Tales Finnish school antti Aarne and Stith Thompson system known as A T for Aarne Thompson The types of the fairy tale Helsinki 1961 several reprints Revise and expanded in 2004 by Hans Jorg Uther A T system assigns a number to each type plot of folktale recorded throughout the world o Golden Bird prince ivan and the firebird tales A T 550 o Cinderella Tales A T 510 A East Slavic Belarusian Russian and Ukrainian uses the Comparative Index f Types The East Slavic Folktale by Barag et al known by Russians as SUS Numbers in SUS match A T system whenever possible Russians combine A T types classified under initial tale type Ukrainian and Belarusian tellers may combine first 4 types Russians ONLY combine as How are fairy tales composed and transmitted many as 8 types Russians Two serious attempts to answer these questions intiated in 1920 s by Americans and Oral Formulaic Theory Milman Parry and Albert B Lord paraphrased by Haney o Developed by Milman Parry in the 1920 s to explain how Homeric epic could have been passed through many generations purely through word of mouth and why its formulas appeared in the way that they did o Parry studied Yugoslav oral poets in their own element o His work was continued by Albert b Lord his student o How epics could be passed down by word of mouth Prague School Structuralism Peter Bogatyrev and Roman Jakobson paraphrased by Jakobson Both schools accept that o Folklore is an oral tradition form of creativity o It is a fluid tradition not memorized thus no fixed text o The question of authorship who wrote it first is not asked Imagine writing doesn t exist How can you pass on a story to others Package it in a memorable form so that not only you can pass it on to the posterity but so that the entire community can do so too However story is not rote memorized yet neither it is improvised in a broad sense In pre literature cultures this memorable form is called oral narrative Oral epic narrative such as Parry and Lord studied in Yugoslavia is performed in accompaniment with music and subject to strict metrical conditions These conditions allow epic poets to develop and memorize versatile phrases that when repeated fill beats in a line By filling out the line in this fashion the poet gives him herself time to improvise details Oral prose narrative although not accompanied by music or bound by meter works in of the story similar ways Characteristics of oral narrative according to the Parry and Lord formula The formula a group of words regularly used under the same metrical rhythmic conditions to express a given essential idea Opening in a certain

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