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MAN4143 Exam 2 Study GuideChapter 4 Personality= The set of unseen characteristics and processes that underlie a relatively stable pattern of behavior in response to ideas, objects, and people in the environment. The Big 5 Personality Dimensions- Five general dimensions that describe personality: extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience.Extraversion= the degree to which a person is outgoing, sociable, talkative, and comfortable meeting and talking to new people. - someone low on extraversion may come off as quiet, withdrawn, and socially unassertive. - this dimension includes a characteristic of dominance. Someone with a high degree of dominance likes to be in control and have influence over others. They are also self confident, competitive and assertiveAgreeableness= the degree to which a person is able to get along with others by being good-natured, cooperative, forgiving, compassionate, understanding, and trusting.- scoring high in agreeableness means your approachable and warm.- scoring low in agreeableness means your cold, distant, and insensitive. Conscientiousness= the degree to which a person is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement-oriented. - a more conscientious person is focused on few goals in which he or she pursues in a purposeful way.- a less conscientious person is tends to be easily distracted and impulsive. Emotional stability= the degree to which a person is well-adjusted, calm, and secure.- high emotional stability handle stress well, able to handle criticism, doesn’t take mistakes or failures personally, develop positive relationships, improve relationships.- low emotional stability are likely to become tense, anxious, or depressed, have emotional outbursts when stressed or criticized. Openness to experience= the degree to which a person has a broad range of interests andis imaginative, creative, and willing to consider new ideas.- high openness to experience means your intellectually curious and often seek new experiences thru travel, the arts, movies, reading widely and other activities. - low openness to experience narrower interests and stick to the tried-and-true ways of doing thingsLocus Of ControlLocus of Control= Defines whether a person places the primary responsibility for what happens to him or her within himself/herself or on outside forces.Internal LOC= people who believe their actions determine what happens to them. - Ex. If you did well on the test, a person with internal LOC would say you worked veryhard, you studied, you memorized everything.External LOC= People who believe outside forces determine what happens to them.- A person with external LOC would say maybe because the professor made it easy, your attributing it to something else, luck or someone else. Differences between Personal Values, Terminal Values and Instrumental ValuesPersonal Values= Fundamental beliefs that an individual considers to be important, that are relatively stable over time, and that have an impact on attitudes and behavior.- values are what cause a person to prefer that things be done one way rather than anotherway. - we are constantly valuing things, people, or ideas as good or bad, pleasant or unpleasant, ethical or unethical. End Values= Sometimes called terminal values, these are beliefs about the kind of goals or outcomes that are worth trying to pursue. (valuing security, a comfortable life, and good health).Instrumental Values= Beliefs about the types of behavior that are appropriate for reaching goals (being helpful to others, being honest, exhibiting courage).Differences: although everyone has both instrumental and end values, individuals differ in how they order values into priorities. Part of this difference relates to culture. In U.S. independence is highly valued, in other cultures they place less value on independence and more on being a tightly knit community. A persons family background also influences his or her values. Values are learned not inherited. Theory X= the assumption that people are basically lazy and not motivated to work and that they have a natural tendency to avoid responsibility.- people in theory x must be coerced, controlled, directed, or threatened to get them to putforth their best effort- leader will likely be concerned for production and task oriented rather than people. - people don’t want to work, you will do anything to get out of that. Theory Y= the assumption that people do not inherently dislike work and will commit themselves willingly to work that they care about. - people will seek responsibility, and will exercise imagination, creativity in the pursuit ofsolutions. - leader will likely be people oriented and concerned with relationship although some leaders may be task or production oriented. - you are self motivated and you do want to do well. - more realistic and productive approach of viewing subordinates. Herman’s Whole Brain Concepts= an approach that considers not only a persons preference for right brained (visual images) versus left brained (verbal and written language) thinking but also conceptual versus experimental thinking, identifies 4 quadrants of the brained related to different thinking styles. Cognitive Style= how a person perceives, processes, interprets, and uses info. Quadrant A (Upper Left)= logical thinking, analysis of facts, and processing numbers. Person is rational and realistic, thinks critically, and likes to deal with numbers and technical matters. Logical procedures. Thinking styles tends to be directive and authoritative. Dealing with concrete info and facts. Opinions are not as important as facts.Quadrant B (Lower Left)= planning, organizing facts and careful detailed review. Well organized, reliable and neat. Establish plans and procedures and get things done on time. Conservative and highly traditional. Avoid risks and strive for stability. They may insist on following rules and procedures. Quadrant C (Lower Right)= interpersonal relationships and intuitive and emotional thought processes. Sensitive to others and enjoy interacting with and teaching others. Emotional and expressive, outgoing, and supportive of others. Leaders with quadrant C are friendly, trusting and empathetic. Concerned with peoples feelings more than with tasks and procedures. Ex. Martha SDRCQuadrant D (Upper Right)= conceptualizing, synthesizing, and integrating facts, and patterns with seeing the big picture rather than details. They

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