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Final Exam Review SheetChapter 17Endocrine vs. exocrine glands  Endocrine- ductless and intracellular effects  Exocrine- ducts and extracellular effects Tropin – a hormone that induces the secretion of other hormonesFor the endocrine organs listed below, know the basic anatomy.For the hormones numbered below, know the name, abbreviation, source, target, primary effectsHypothalamus – releasing and inhibiting hormones1. Thyroid-releasing hormone- promote secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) and prolactin(PRL)2. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone- promotes secretion of follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)3. Growth hormone-releasing hormone- promotes secretion of growth hormonePituitary gland – know anatomy [Look @ picture in book]hypophysis, hypophyseal portal system, hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract, anterior lobe, posterior lobe, adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis, infundibulumAnterior pituitary Hormones (source)4. Follicle-stimulating hormone- (FSH) targets the ovaries/testesfemales- growth of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen males- testosterone secretion 5. Luteinizing hormone- (LH) ovaries/testes- females- ovulation, maintenance of corpus luteummales-testosterone secretion 6. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-(TSH) thyroid gland- growth thyroid, secretion of thyroid hormone 7. Adrenocorticotropic hormone- (ACTH) adrenal cortex- growth of adrenal cortex, secretion of gluccorticoids 8. Prolactin-(PRL) mammary glands/testes- female- milk synthesis male- increased LH sensitivity and testosterone secretion 9. Growth hormone-(GH) liver, bone, cartilage, muscle, fat- widespread tissue growth, especially in stated tissues Name Abbreviation Source Target EffectFollicle-stimulating hormoneFSH Anterior Pituitary Ovaries, testes Female- growth of ovarian follicles and 1secretion of estrogenMale- sperm productionLuteinizing hormoneLH Anterior Pituitary Ovaries, testes Female- ovulation/ maintains corpus luteumMale- secretion of testosteroneThyroid-stimulating hormoneTSH Anterior Pituitary Thyroid Gland Growth of thyroidPromotes secretion of THAdrenocorticotropic hormoneACTH Anterior Pituitary Adrenal Cortex Stimulates growth of adrenal cortex/ secretion of GlucocorticoidsProlactin PRL Anterior Pituitary Mammary Glands, TestesFemale- milk productionMale-increases LH and testosterone hormoneGrowth hormone *effects discussed more in-depthGH Anterior Pituitary Liver, Bone, Cartilage, Muscle, FatWide spread affect of stated tissue (see notes)Posterior pituitary (Source)10. Antidiuretic hormone- (ADH) kidneys- water retention11. Oxytocin-(OT) uterus, mammary glands- labor contractions, milk release; possibly involved in ejaculation, sperm transport, sexual affection and mother infant bonding Name Abbreviation Source Target EffectAntidiuretic hormoneADH Posterior PituitaryKidneys Water retention, less urination, vasoconstriction (retains water)2Oxytocin OT Posterior PituitaryUterus, Mammary GlandsLabor contractions, milk and sperm ejaculationPineal Gland (source) – tiny shrunken mass on top of brainstem; branching off of cerebrum 12. Melatonin- synchronize physiological function with 24-hr circadian rhythm of daylight and darkness; made from serotonin at night time - may regulate puberty - responsible for SAD and PMS due to elevated melatonin levels Name Abbreviation Source Target EffectMelatonin Pineal Gland Brain Regulates circadian rhythms of light and darkPMS and SADThymus (source) - Hormones (thymosins) lead to development of T cells – important for immune system- plays a role in three systems: endocrine, lymphatic and immune - secretes hormones that stimulate the development of other lymphatic organs and activity of T-lymphocytes Name AbbreviationSource Target EffectThymosins Thymus Immune system Development of T cellsThyroid gland – LARGEST ENDOCRINE GLAND; dark reddish brown color due to rich blood supply - two lobesand a isthmus below the larynx - follicles- sacs that compose most of the thyroid - follicular cells- simple cuboidal epithelium that lines follicles - Colloid- protein rich mixture that makes up the thyroid gland - C cells (parafollicular)- secrete calcitonin with rising blood calcium313. Thyroid hormone – thyroxine & triiodothyronine – produced by follicular cells- Increase metabolic rate, O2 consumption, heat production, appetite, growth hormone secretion, alertness and quicker reflexes ** secreted in response to TSH**14. Calcitonin – produced by C cells- stimulates osteoblast activity and bone formation - secreted in response to rising blood calcium levels Name Abbreviation Source Target EffectThyroid HormoneThyroxine/ tetraiodothyronineTriodothyronineT4T3Thyroid Follicular CellsMost tissues Increase oxygen consumption in cold, increases metabolic rate, increased heat production (calorigenic effect), stimulates TH secretionCalcitonin Parafolicular Cells (C cells)Bone Takes calcium from blood and puts into bone, stimulates osteoblast activity, secreted in response to RISING blood calciumParathyroid glands-usually four glands partially embedded in posterior surface of thyroid gland 15. Parathyroid hormone(PTH)- increases blood Ca levels - Promotes synthesis of calcitriol - Increase absorption of Ca - Decreases urinary excertion - Increase bone reabsorption Name Abbreviation Source Target EffectParathyroid HormonePTH Parathyroid GlandBone, Kidneys, small intestineIncreases blood calcium, promotes synthesis of CALCITROL (VIT D), decreases urine output, increases bone resorption 4(bone to blood)Adrenal (Suprarenal) glands – endocrine gland  adrenal medulla- modified ganglion of sympathetic NS adrenal cortex- surrounds adrenal medulla and produces more than 25 steroid hormones called corticosteroid or corticoids Adrenal medulla – modified sympathetic ganglion secrete the hormones - epinephrine, norepinephrine (effects are similar to that of the sympathetic nervous system – fight or flight)Name Abbreviation Source Target EffectEpinephrineNorepinephrineAdrenal Medulla Most Tissues/ sympathetic nervous systemFlight or Fight, increased HR, BP, blood flow to muscles, dilates pupils, decrease blood flow to kidneys and digestive tractAdrenal cortex – produces corticosteroids including aldosterone, cortisol and androgens16. Aldosterone- (mineralocorticoid; zona glomerulosa)- stimulates Na retention and K excretion, water is retained with sodium by osmosis, so blood volume and blood pressure

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Virginia Tech BMSP 2136 - Final Exam Review Sheet

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