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Final Exam Review Sheet Chapter 17 Endocrine vs exocrine glands Endocrine ductless and intracellular effects Exocrine ducts and extracellular effects Tropin a hormone that induces the secretion of other hormones For the endocrine organs listed below know the basic anatomy For the hormones numbered below know the name abbreviation source target primary effects Hypothalamus releasing and inhibiting hormones 1 Thyroid releasing hormone promote secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone TSH and prolactin PRL 2 Gonadotropin releasing hormone promotes secretion of follicle stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH 3 Growth hormone releasing hormone promotes secretion of growth hormone Pituitary gland know anatomy Look picture in book hypophysis hypophyseal portal system hypothalamo hypophyseal tract anterior lobe posterior lobe adenohypophysis neurohypophysis infundibulum Anterior pituitary Hormones source 4 Follicle stimulating hormone FSH targets the ovaries testes females growth of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen males testosterone secretion 5 Luteinizing hormone LH ovaries testes females ovulation maintenance of corpus luteum males testosterone secretion 6 Thyroid stimulating hormone TSH thyroid gland growth thyroid secretion of thyroid hormone 7 Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH adrenal cortex growth of adrenal cortex secretion of gluccorticoids 8 Prolactin PRL mammary glands testes female milk synthesis male increased LH sensitivity and testosterone secretion 9 Growth hormone GH liver bone cartilage muscle fat widespread tissue growth especially in stated tissues Name Abbreviation Source Target Effect Follicle stimulating hormone FSH Anterior Pituitary Ovaries testes Female growth of ovarian follicles and 1 Luteinizing hormone LH Anterior Pituitary Ovaries testes Thyroid stimulating hormone Adrenocorticotropic hormone TSH Anterior Pituitary Thyroid Gland Growth of thyroid ACTH Anterior Pituitary Adrenal Cortex Prolactin PRL Anterior Pituitary Mammary Glands Testes Female milk production secretion of estrogen Male sperm production Female ovulation maintains corpus luteum Male secretion of testosterone Promotes secretion of TH Stimulates growth of adrenal cortex secretion of Glucocorticoids Male increases LH and testosterone hormone Wide spread affect of stated tissue see notes Growth hormone effects discussed more in depth GH Anterior Pituitary Liver Bone Cartilage Muscle Fat Posterior pituitary Source 10 Antidiuretic hormone ADH kidneys water retention 11 Oxytocin OT uterus mammary glands labor contractions milk release possibly involved in ejaculation sperm transport sexual affection and mother infant bonding Name Abbreviation Source Antidiuretic hormone ADH Posterior Pituitary Target Kidneys Effect Water retention less urination vasoconstriction retains water 2 Oxytocin OT Posterior Pituitary Uterus Mammary Glands Labor contractions milk and sperm ejaculation Pineal Gland source tiny shrunken mass on top of brainstem branching off of cerebrum 12 Melatonin synchronize physiological function with 24 hr circadian rhythm of daylight and darkness made from serotonin at night time may regulate puberty responsible for SAD and PMS due to elevated melatonin levels Name Abbreviation Source Melatonin Pineal Gland Target Brain Effect Regulates circadian rhythms of light and dark PMS and SAD Thymus source Hormones thymosins lead to development of T cells important for immune system plays a role in three systems endocrine lymphatic and immune secretes hormones that stimulate the development of other lymphatic organs and activity of T lymphocytes Name Source Target Effect Abbreviatio n Thymosins Thymus Immune system Development of T cells Thyroid gland LARGEST ENDOCRINE GLAND dark reddish brown color due to rich blood supply two lobesand a isthmus below the larynx follicles sacs that compose most of the thyroid follicular cells simple cuboidal epithelium that lines follicles Colloid protein rich mixture that makes up the thyroid gland C cells parafollicular secrete calcitonin with rising blood calcium 3 13 Thyroid hormone thyroxine triiodothyronine produced by follicular cells Increase metabolic rate O2 consumption heat production appetite growth hormone secretion alertness and quicker reflexes secreted in response to TSH 14 Calcitonin produced by C cells stimulates osteoblast activity and bone formation secreted in response to rising blood calcium levels Name Abbreviation Source Target Effect Thyroid Follicular Cells Most tissues Thyroid Hormone Thyroxine tetraiodothyronin e Triodothyronine T4 T3 Calcitonin Parafolicular Cells C cells Bone Increase oxygen consumption in cold increases metabolic rate increased heat production calorigenic effect stimulates TH secretion Takes calcium from blood and puts into bone stimulates osteoblast activity secreted in response to RISING blood calcium Parathyroid glands usually four glands partially embedded in posterior surface of thyroid gland 15 Parathyroid hormone PTH increases blood Ca levels Promotes synthesis of calcitriol Increase absorption of Ca Decreases urinary excertion Increase bone reabsorption Name Abbreviation Source Target Effect Parathyroid Hormone PTH Parathyroid Gland Bone Kidneys small intestine Increases blood calcium promotes synthesis of CALCITROL VIT D decreases urine output increases bone resorption 4 bone to blood Adrenal Suprarenal glands endocrine gland adrenal medulla modified ganglion of sympathetic NS adrenal cortex surrounds adrenal medulla and produces more than 25 steroid hormones called corticosteroid or corticoids Adrenal medulla modified sympathetic ganglion secrete the hormones epinephrine norepinephrine effects are similar to that of the sympathetic nervous system fight or flight Name Abbreviation Source Target Effect Epinephrine Adrenal Medulla Most Tissues Norepinephrine sympathetic nervous system Flight or Fight increased HR BP blood flow to muscles dilates pupils decrease blood flow to kidneys and digestive tract Adrenal cortex produces corticosteroids including aldosterone cortisol and androgens 16 Aldosterone mineralocorticoid zona glomerulosa stimulates Na retention and K excretion water is retained with sodium by osmosis so blood volume and blood pressure are maintained 17 Cortisol glucocorticoids zona fasciculate stimulates fat and protein catabolism glucongenesis glucose from amino acids and fatty acids and release of fatty acids and glucose into blood Name Example Source Target Effect

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Virginia Tech BMSP 2136 - Final Exam Review Sheet

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