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FSU CHM 2200 - Notes

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- The starting material for polymerization reactions is a(n) monomer.- The various shapes taken on by an organic molecule are known as conformations.- The term used to describe the geometry of a carbon atom involved in a triple bond is linear.- According to Markovnikov’s rules, when HCl reacts with the molecule shown, which product will result? (CH3)2C=CHCH3 +HCl -> (CH3)2CClCH2CH3- Which of the statements about the behavior of the element carbon in organic molecules is incorrect? When carbon forms four single bonds, the bond angles are 90 degrees.- The commonly accepted mechanism for explaining alkene reactions involves formation of carbocations.- Elements in Period 3 or below don’t always “obey” the octet rule because they can use s,p, and d orbitals for bonding.- A chemical bond formed between two identical atoms is a(an) covalent bond.- A bond where he electrons are shared unequally is called a(n) polar covalent bond.- A molecule is which the central atom has no lone pairs and forms four single bonds is said to have a tetrahedral shape.- Which substance is not reactive with respect to alkanes? H2- A rearrangement reaction can best be described as a reaction in which a single reactant undergoes reorganization of is chemical bonds, producing an isomer of the reactant.- Which family of organic molecules is a hydrocarbon? Aromatic- The most common reactions involving aromatics are substitution reactions.- The carbon dioxide molecule is linear. The electronegativities of C and O are 2.5 and 3.5, respectively. Based on these values and on consideration of molecular geometry, the C-O bond is polar and the molecule is non-polar. - Which phase most accurately describes the structure common to all aromatic compounds? Identical bonds between all 6 carbon atoms, with 6 electrons moving freely- How many carbon atoms are there in the longest continuous chain of the molecule shown? (CH3)2CH-(CH2)5-CH3 8- The arene or aromatic functional group is often represented as a six-membered ring with three double bonds. - How many hydrogen atoms are contained in a molecule of 1,4-hexadiene? 10- A chemical bond formed when two atoms share three pairs of electrons is a triple bond; it is best described as covalent. - The functional group illustrated by R-O-R’ is an ether.- Markovnikov’s Rule refers to the orientation an unsymmetrical reagent will take when added to an unsymmetrical alkene.- A molecule in which the central atom forms one double bond and two single bonds is said to have a trigonal planar shape. - Which element is the least electronegative? Hydrogen- Which of the following reactions involves addition of two different elements to an alkene? Hydrohalogenation - Which group is the best description of the properties of alkanes? Flammable, non-reactive, insoluble in water- What element listed is the most electronegative? Chlorine- All of the following are common reactions of benzene except hydrogenation. - Bromobenzene can be prepared from benzene by reaction with Br2 and FeBr3- When a reaction system is at equilibrium the rates of the reaction in the forward and the reverse directions are exactly equal.- A reaction is said to be exothermic if the bonds formed during the reaction are stronger than thebonds broken.- When an alkene undergoes a hydration reaction the product is an alcohol.-- An alkaloid is best described as any basic compound obtained from a plant. - Compounds of the type R2CH-OH are referred to as secondary alcohols.- The alcohol which contains two carbon atoms has the common name of grain alcohol is ethanol.- Which molecule listed is heterocyclic? Pyridine- An amine that is insoluble in water can be made to dissolve by adding it to an aqueous solution of HCl.- Which compound is a tertiary alcohol? 2-methyl-2-hexanol- If methylamine reacts with hydrochloric acid, the major product will be methylammonium chloride- The reaction conditions which would result in formation of disulfides from thiols are mild oxidizing. - The common name of CH3CH2OH is grain alcohol.- Which molecule would be the most acidic? Phenol- The molecule CH3CH2CH2OCH2CH3 can be classified as an ether.- When the nitrogen atom in an organic compound has four covalent bonds, it is called a quaternary ammonium ion.- Treatment of CH3CH2OH with an excess of oxidizing agent will produce a carboxylic acid.- Which property of thiols makes them useful as additives to natural gas? Odor- When an amine behaves as a base it gains a hydrogen ion to form a(n) ammonium ion.- The molecule with three carbon atoms with an –OH group on each, and used as a moisturizer is glycerol.- Rubbing alcohol is composed of isopropyl alcohol.- Which compound would you expect to have the lowest boiling point? Methane- Strong oxidation of primary alcohol will produce a carboxylic acid. - Amines are classified by the number of carbons attached to the carbon bonded to the nitrogen.- Which alcohol should be used to produce 4-methyl-2-pentene by dehydration? 4-methyl-2-pentanol- The common name of CH2(OH)CH2OH is ethylene glycol (antifreeze)- Oxidation of a tertiary alcohol will produce no reaction- Which class of amines can form intermolecular hydrogen bonds? 1,2,3 degrees- The reverse reaction of acetal formation is hydrolysis.- In the production of an ester, the carboxylic acid loses which atom or group of atoms? The OH group- Reduction of an aldehyde produces a primary alcohol.- When an amine reacts with a carboxylic acid at high temperatures the major product is an amide.- What is the element that causes oxidation in the Tollens’ test for aldehydes? Silver- Which observation denotes a positive Tollens’ test? A silver deposit forms on the glass surface- When an alcohol reacts with phosphoric acid, the product is referred to as a phosphate ester. - Which of the following is not a property of aldehydes and ketones? They cannot form hydrogen bonds with water because they have no hydrogen atoms bonded to oxygen.- The ion formed from a carboxylic acid is called the carboxylate anion.- When an amide is hydrolyzed under basic conditions, the products are an amine and a carboxylate ion.- Reduction of aldehydes and ketones is a two-step reaction involving the H- and H+ ions- Oxidation of an aldehyde produces a carboxylic acid.- To what class of compounds does glucose belong? Cyclic hemiacetal- The reactants needed to produce simple polyamides (nylons) are diacids and diamines.- Which type of compound does not contain a

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