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SYD 4600 Final Study GuideChapter 9: Latinos the Largest MinorityThe Latino Population: • 8 million+ in Texas & California, • 1.4-4million in Florida, New York, Illinois, and Arizona. • Nearly 32 million, or two-thirds of Latinos in the United States are Mexican Americans, or ChicanosPanethincity: the development of solidarity between ethnic subgroupsColor Gradient: The placement of people on a continuum from light to dark skin color rather than in distinct racial groupings by skin colorThe borderlands: the area of a common culture along the border between Mexico and the United States. Maquiladoras: foreign-owned companies on the Mexican side of the border with the United States,Remittances: the monies that immigrants return to their countries of origin. Hometown Clubs: • non-profit organizations that maintain close ties to immigrants’ hometowns in Mexico and other Latin nations.• They collect money for improvements in hospitals and schools in Mexican hometownsTransnationals: immigrants who sustain multiple social relationships that link their societies of origin and settlement.The Economic Picture:• Median income of Latinos has increased over past 25 years• Gap remains between Latinos and Whites• The typical Latino household earns 70 cents for every dollar earned by Whites• Low wealth is characteristic of Hispanic households- Likely to earn less annually and have fewer financial resources to fall back on• Poverty rate reflects pattern in income• Beginning of 2010, 25.3% of Latinos were below poverty level compared to 9.4% of Whites.Latinos Growing Political Presence• 2010, Only 19% of Latinos voters had more confidence in the Republican agenda on immigration- Most Latino voters have leaned toward the Democratic position• * Latino voters played a key role in helping to re-elect President Obama in 2012Cuban Americans• 2010, Only 19% of Latinos voters had more confidence in the Republican agenda on immigration• Most Latino voters have leaned toward the Democratic position•• * Latino voters played a key role in helping to re-elect President Obama in 2012• This increase followed Fidel Castro’s assumption of power after the 1959 Cuban revolutionThree significant influxes of immigrants through the 1980s• 1st - About 200,000 came during the first three years after Castro came into power2nd – Freedom Flights; 340,000 refugees between 1965 and 1973• 3rd – 1980 Mariel boatlift is most controversial – “Freedom Flotilla”• Castro used Carter’s invitation to send prison inmates, patients from mental hospitals, & addictsMarielitos: people who arrived from Cuba in the third wave of Cuban Immigration (those deported by Mariel Harbor)Dry Foot, Wet Foot: government policy which generally allows Cuban nationals who manage to reach the US (“dry foot”) to remain while those picked up at sea (“wet foot”) are sent back to Cuba.The Current Picture• Long-range perspective of Cubans in the US depends on several factors• Most important – events in Cuba• Refugees proclaim desire to return if communist regime is overturnedCentral and South Americans• Central and South Americans came from - historically different experiences and times- culturally diverse backgrounds• Unlike racial groupings in the United States, they use a color gradient- They describe skin color along a continuum from light to dark (this is Another indicator of the social construction of race)icans• Other distinctions- Social class distinctions- Religious differences- Urban versus rural backgrounds- Differences in dialects among those speaking same language• Central and South Americans do not form a cohesive group• By 2010 El Salvador, Guatemala, and Columbia were the top countries of origin - Each with at least a million presentChapter 10: Mexican Americans and Puerto RicansThe Immigrant ExperienceImmigration from Mexico is unique in several respects• There has been continuous large-scale movement for most of the past century• The proximity of Mexico encourages immigrants to maintain strong cultural & language ties• There is an aura of illegality that has surrounded Mexican migrantsRepatriation: the 1930’s program of deporting Mexicans.Braceros: contracted Mexican laborers brought to the United States during World War II.Mojados: or “wetbacks,” is the slang term for Mexicans who enter the U.S. illegally, supposedly by swimming across the Rio Grande.La Raza: means “the people”, the term refers to the rich heritage of Mexicans Americans; it is therefore used to denote a sense of pride among Mexican Americans today. Ceasar Chavez: (1927-1993) was the best-known Mexican American labor leader- He led the organizing efforts of migrant farm workers in the US Southwest- He co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers (UFW) (1962)Chicanismo/Chicano Movement: • Chicano: is a term used as a reference to U.S. citizens of Mexican descent• The term began to be widely used by Mexican Americans during the Chicano Movement, especially during the late 1960s and early 1970s Chicanismo: Stresses a positive self-imageTracking: the practice of placing students in specific curriculum groups on the basis of test scores and other criteria Familism: pride and closeness in the family, that results in placing family obligation before personal needs. Life Chances: people’s opportunities to provide themselves with material goods, positive living conditions and favorable life experiences. Chapter 11: Muslim and Arab Americans: Diverse MinoritiesHijab: a variety of garments that allow women to follow guidelines of modest dress. Islamophobia: a range of negative feelings toward Muslims and their religion that ranges from generalized intolerance to hatred. Racial Profiling: Refers to any arbitrary police-initiated action based on race, ethnicity, or national originMuslims: • Muslims are a religious group.• Islam is the faith (like Christianity)• A Muslim is a follower of that religion (like a Christian)Nation of Islam: included African American Muslims such as Malcolm X, and Louis Farrakhan who is the most visible spokesperson among Muslim groups in the African American community today and the current leader of the Nation of Islam religious movement.Chapter 12: Asian AmericansModel or Ideal Minority: The general image that people in the U.S. have of Asian Americans is that they represent a model or ideal minority

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FSU SYD 4700 - Final Study Guide

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