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FSU INR 3932r - Post-Dynasty China

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Post-Dynasty ChinaI. The Fall of the Dynasty A. Emperor Puyi and Prince ZunB. Sun YatsenC. Tongmenghui (Guomindang-1912)-Domino EffectD. October Revolution (1911)E. Yuan Shikai and the Beiyang ArmyII. Republic of China (1912)A. Yuan Shikai (1912-16)B. Li Yuanhong (1916)C. Warlord Era (1816-1928)III. Change Coming to ChinaA. New culture MovementB. LiberalismC. Nationalism1. May 4th Movement (1919)2. May 30th 1925Post-Dynasty China*Guomingdang (GMD) and Kuomintang (KMT) are the same thing*Guomingdang and Nationalists are interchangeable Sun Yatsen the father of modern China. He is born in Canton to a peasant family in 1866. He will live in Hawaii for three 3years receiving a Western education. He learned of American democracy and how the system worked. He learned and adapted Christianity. He picked up English quite easily. After 3years in Hawaii he returns to Hong Kong China to receive a medical degree. Sun’s medical education was not up to par with the Western requirements in British Hong Kong. In 1895 with the end of the Sino-Japanese war Sun joins a revolutionary movement. Sun would want to overthrow the dynasty for a democratic society like America.Tongmenghui in 1905 is formed a revolutionary group calling for the overthrow of the Ching. The Japanese were working with Sun and the Tongmenghui to overthrow the Ching Dynasty. 1905-1911 the group is responsible for staging multiple revolutions. However the Domino effect never kicked in. in march of 1911 A large scale revolutions was planned however the Domino effect never occurs and Sun flees to Japan in exile. Yuan Shikai was the one man who could stop the revolution. He is an extremely powerful man with the Beiyang Army created after the Sino-Japanese war based in Beijing. The Beiyang Army is the Imperial army with the latest technology and training. Shikai was the Governor of Hebi province. He was so powerful Prince Zun forced him to retire. Zun however rehires Yuan. Sun becomes president and claims Nanking as the capital. Yuan Shikai is an opportunists and wagers for a Prime Minister position of the Imperial cabinet. Prince Zun desperate needed Shikai so he agreed. The Beiyang Army met a lot of success from the revolutionaries. Sun sees destruction and makes a deal with Shikai and offers Shikai provisional Presidency. Shikai agrees and joins the revolutionaries. February 12th 1912 the boy emperor is abdicated from the throne. Imperial China ends. Shikai becomes provisional President. The Tongmenghui would become an official party of the government. Shikai argues that China was not stable enough to move the capital from Beijing to Nanking. Shikai also realizes that he has been duked in the sense of elections, a voting process in which the assembly will elect the president. It is not the president who holds power but the Prime Minster who holds the power. The Guomingdang party wins the election. Shikai assassinated the premier in order to gain power. The Guomingdang will gather their army to challenge Shikai. However Shikai’s Beiyang Army is too powerful for the Guomingdang. The followers of Guomingdang will be executed by Shikai and Sun goes into exile. Shikai bans the Guomingdang. Shikai is voted as president after many bribes. By 1915 Yuan Shikai is the president with Li Yuanhong as vice president. Shikai does not like the 10year term for presidency so he opts to become emperor. The people of China would not want the idea of an emperor. Yuan gives up on the idea of emperor. He was traitorous in many ways so the people were removing his calling for power because some saw is true intentions for power.Yuan will have a Kidney failure and die. His handpicked successor is Li Yuanhong but reinstates the Guomingdang constitution. Li Yuanhong wanted to rebuild the republic. In 1916 China becomes a warlord state until 1928. Beijing becomes a pawn among the warlords. Sun will return to Canton China. In 1919 Sun will become the head of the Guomingdang. Sun will form an opposition government in Guangdong. The New Culture movement reform occurs from students. It criticized China’s old ways. Mao will be a member of the New Culture Movement. Abdicated a common gram macular Mandarin and a Chinese simplified script making it easier for the average person to become literate. Focus on the math and science. There is a focus on Democracy. Liberalism also becomes prominent in which the Government should work for the people. Nationalism also becomes popular when there had only been regional dynasty or provisional identity. May 4th Movement of 1919 is very important to China and occurs every May 4th in China. China participated with the allies in WWI hoping to gain Shandong from Germany. However the very corrupt premier handed Shandong to Japan. It would result in people (Mainlystudents) flooding in Tiananmen Square protesting the abilities of the Government. It is said that Nationalism officially occurred on May 4th where the people united for a common purpose. Mao would be among the protestors. Workers dispute of May 30th 1925 in response of the unfair treatment in Japanese factories in China. The municipal police will open fire on the workers protest. Once again nationalism will take hold on this day The Nationalist EraI. Sun Yasten and the opposition Govt.II. Guomingdang/Chinese Communist party (CCP) AllianceA. Three Principles of the PeopleB. Sun’s DeathIII. Northern Expedition (1926-8) = 1st United FrontA. Chiang Kai-sheck (Whampoa Academy)IV. Nationalist China (1928-1949)A. Nationalist ruleB. The CCPC. 6 Campaigns vs. the CCPD. The Long March (1934-5)1. Mao Zedong 2. Zunyi Conference 3. Legacy The Nationalist EraSun Yatsen’s Nationalist Opposition Government is not an official government. It is Leninist, democratic, and centralist government. Sun Yatsen will have support through the common term from the communist parties such as Russia. According to Marxist Capitalism was supposed to lead to socialism. However Lenin did not see Capitalism falling so he wanted to help China in order to stop the colonies in China. In 1921 Chinese Communist Party is formed from the new culture movement. In 1923 Sun Yatsen gave a speech known as the “3 Principles of the People”based on Abraham’s government of the people for the people. The speech had Nationalism, Democracy, and Socialism. His biggest concern is nationalism. Sun Yatsen dies in 1929 of liver cancer. The Right Wing of the Guomingdang will be more vocal while the CCP will spread


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