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GEO4421 Final Exam Study Guide3/26 Religion and Culture Culture: a set of behaviors (socially constructed-not natural) and grouped together to divide people • Laden with power dynamics and often used as a means to exploit people• It is a product of a long series of conquests throughout history• It is geographically determined by the way individuals divide/situate themselvesSense of place: a reason for someone to identify w/ a place, create an emotional connection to it• It is not necessary to live near someone to have the same sense of place (ex. Amish communities around the US share a sense of place)• It is a social construct (an artifact of power relations)The world is incredibly complicated, with varying webs of interactions and connections that are represented in shorthand/partial views to model space time compression (SPT)• In an attempt to represent/define ourselves in this complex world we relate to a sense of place • It serves as a simplified way to represent a complex series of connections• It also divides people—by distinguishing who is included, excluded and why [Ex. West v Rest, norm v racial other, chick-fil-A debate]. o Certain representation get the upper-hand and are more widely acceptedo Neil Ferguson: argued that certain cultures are demonstratively bettero Sowell: argued that bad behaviors will be weeded out through social evolution3/28 What is Religion?Religion: a means to explain the world, where people fit into it, their identity/community (divides ppl), explains the unexplained• Serves as a connection to extra-social identities (NOT a social production, when referring to a “higher power”)National Geographic documentary on Islam (don’t need to know the order, but need to know the terms!)• Kaba : symbolizes the worship of God (Allah) at the heart of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Referred to as the house of God• Hijj : sacred pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia (only Muslims are allowed into the Holy City)• Ihram : state of being, calmness, respect/patience. Men must wear 2 pieces of white cloth, no sex, grooming or arguing. • Plain of Arafat : chance for absolution, can climb mountain of Mercy (Where Mohammad delivered his last sermon)• Jamarat : stoning of Satan (3 pillars)• Tawaf : circling the Kaba (7 times)• Sa’i : striding between the 2 hills (representing Ishmael’s feat to find food/water)• Mina : Tent city (figures twice, on the way to Plain of Afrafat and after Jamarat, heading back to Mecca for the feast)• Fest of sacrifice : largest sacrifice of sheep in the world, can get your hair cut, last stop on the Hajj**Why did we watch this? The world is a complicated place, and in order to determine our place, we create a sense of place. One of the easiest places to see this establishment of sense of place is through religion, and the Hajj is a prime example. 4/2 Sense of Place and the HajjPlace-making: process of negotiating our experiences to determine what commonalities we share 1. Informed by experience : in the world and our daily life2. Agonistic : place-making is argumentative/negotiated through our experiences 3. Influenced by power : knowledge, authority, presentationHajj: example of one effort to place-making1. Informed by experience: Dr. O’Leary from Texas (Dr. in Neuroscience), Halel from S. Africa (radio host w/ Islam being the primary focus), and Ismael from Malaysia (executive, golfer, large family)a. What did they share in common? They were all on their first pilgrimage, performed the same actions, engaged in Ihram, cut their hair at the end, and share the same beliefs/faithb. How did their experiences differ? i. O’Leary: constantly questioned on truly being Muslim. Didn’t fit into to the masses, was a white woman with blond hair and blue eyes. ii. Halel: felt he was discriminated against for being black. Struggled at Mina (tent city)2. Agonistic (negotiate/debate experiences): O’Leary and Halel negotiated to fit-in/feel accepted. a. Halel: left his assigned tent and moved into a predominantly black tent, with individuals who accepted him. b. O’Leary: found acceptance towards the end of her pilgrimage when a Muslim man engaged with her at they prayed together. She constantly had to prove her self as a devote Muslim.c. All were fundamentally challenged through their agonistic experience of going through the Hajj3. Influenced by power : the social constructions created through race distinctions create the influence of power. a. O’Leary was discriminated against for being blonde with blue eyes. b. Halel was discriminated against for being blacki. Both felt like outsiders, were cast into different categories/distinctions based on race/appearance Is Sense of Place for the Hajj global or local?• Dr. O’Leary: Mostly Global. Texas is very Catholic, few Muslims so she is seen as an outsider. • Ismeal: Global and local. High concentration of Muslim’s in Malaysia-gov’t established set protocol for Hajj• Halel: Global and slightly local. Slight representation on Islam, as seen through his Islamic focused radio station**According to the theory of Sense of Place, all pilgrims come from around the world, with different experiences, cultures, and languages, so they pilgrimage together to one (global) sense of place (Mecca). Religion and sense of place• Through the practice of religion (establishing a certain belief system & acting upon it—ex. Hajj) sense of place is created• BUT, each individual experience is different due to their informed experiences• Sense of place cannot simply be one category-it must be linked by geographic locations• Out of religious practices other realms of life/society are impacted that may not have direct religious tieso State governments: for the Hajj, Saudi Arabia had to build-up an infrastructure to handle influx of people. Malaysia developed a formal system to transport pilgrims. o Family dynamics: altered by individual relations with other religions (Dr. O’Leary as an outsider of her family)Jesus Campus Documentary• Key Characters: o Levi (Boy with the Rattail): singled out in the film as a leader of his generation. Spoke of his conversion to Evangelism at age 5, for he felt he didn’t have anything else to live foro Pastor Becky: The Pastor in charge, owns/run Jesus Camp. Stated her main focus is on the youngergeneration, because they are the most malleable (models the concept of “suicide bombers” who feel so

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FSU GEO 4421 - Final Exam Study Guide

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