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Juvenile Justice: CJJ 4010Test #2 – Study Guide1. Be familiar with social disorganization theory, and particularly with where in the city delinquency rates were highest. (Chapter 4)- Social disorganization theory focuses on the conditions within the urban environment that affect delinquency rates- Deteriorated neighborhoods- Inadequate social control- Law violating gangs and groups- Conflicting social values - Delinquency rates are the highest in transitional neighborhoods-areas that had changed from affluence to povertyo The areas with heaviest delinquency concentration appears to be the poverty-stricken, transitional, inner city zones 2. Know the reports of rational choice theory, and the different methods for controlling rationalized delinquency.- Four strategies of control:o General deterrence- concept holds that the choice to commit delinquent acts is structured by the threat of punishment (the more severe the act, the greater its deterrent effect will beo Specific deterrence- if offenders are punished severely, the experience will convince them not to repeat their illegal actso Incapacitation- incarcerating the most dangerous repeat juvenile offenders will reduce their ability to commit delinquent acts o Situational crime prevention (reducing people’s opportunities to commit particular crimes)- crime prevention method that relies on reducing the opportunity to commit criminal acts by: Making them more difficult to perform Reducing their reward Increasing their risk 3. In terms of Merton’s strain theory, you need to know how law controls people, and how people can adapt when law loses its binding force.- Strain theory suggests that while most people share similar values and goals,such as good education, a nice home, a great car, and stylish clothes, the ability to achieve these personal goals are stratified by socioeconomic class.- While everyone may want the same thing, millions of people are simply unable to get them through legal/legitimate means-may develop criminal or delinquent solution to the problem of attaining goals - Social adaptations:o Conformity: accepts both goals and meanso Innovation: keep some goal but reject meanso Ritualism: give up on the idea you can become successfulo Retreatism: reject botho Rebellion : reject both; substitute new goals/means Focuses on money and economic strengthNo need for negative emotional stateRules no longer have a binding force Means don’t let you obtain your goals, rules break downKnow diff. types of adaptation in Merton’s theory 4. For Agnew’s general strain theory, know what it considers to be straining, and the route though which this leads to delinquency. - General strain theory explains why adolescents who feel stress and strain aremore likely to engage in delinquent acts- What’s considered to be straining: o Failure to achieve positively valued goals: youth aspires for wealth and fame but lack financial resources to achieve their goalso Disjunction of expectations and achievements: kids compare themselves to peers who are more financially or socially better causing straino Removal of positively valued stimuli: strain may come from actual removal of a positive figure in one’s life like a loss of a relative; boyfriend/girlfriend; etc.o Presentation of negative stimuli: negative experiences such as child abuse/neglect, crime victimization, and interaction with stressful life events ranging from family breakup to dissatisfaction can also produce strain - The route which leads to delinquency:o Each type of strain will increase the likelihood of experiencing such negative emotions as disappointment, depression, fear, and most important, angero Juveniles who are impulsive, lack self control, and have negative emotions are also likely to react to strain with delinquency and anti social behaviors This can provide relief and satisfaction for someone living a stress-filled life Delinquency can sometimes relieve those feelings of anger and rage Emphasizes that strain leads to crime causing negative emotional states like disappointment 5. For Gottfredson and Hirschi’s self-control theory, know what self control is, what it explains, what produces it, and when it develops. - Self control theory is the strongest known correlate, individual level of crime- 1. Is an internal trait primary mechanism of blocking anti social behavior- 2. 6 components of low self controlo a. impulsivity: here and now mentality; inability to delay gratificationo b. simple tasks: a preference for simple activity then more complex ones. Like to do things that require little skill and little planningo c. self centered: your indifferent or insensitive to the feelings and sufferings of otherso d. risk seeking: like to take risks; like activities that involve speed, thrilling and dangerous; tend to be active, adventuresome and less cautiouso e. physical: prefer physical activities to cognitive activitieso f. hot tempered: have a short temper, more likely to respond to confrontation with physical rather than verbal means- 3. Low self control is a chief cause of crime and delinquency and “analogousbehavior” - 4. One’s level of self-control relative to everyone else’s level of self control is established by age of 8-10 which after then is almost impossible to change. It remains stable over course of life- 5. Self control is product of effective parenting, to be effective you must:o monitor your kido notice their behavioro must sanction it instantly - 6. Many of the traditional explanations of criminal behavior are in fact consequences of low self control- 7. Self control must be developed before a critical age, and after which it can’t be altered by any further methods of socialization or rehab.- 8. Policy implications of self control theory: o self control doesn’t change but eventually you age and don’t have the physical means6. Know the key propositions of Sutherland’s differential association theory.Learning directly from the environment through rewards and punishments - You’re taught to be a delinquent- Has two parts: content and process on how you’re taughto content techniques on how to do it motives for why you should do it justification on why it’s okayo process: learning that occurs in intimate, close, social groups- Composed of nine propositions:o 1. Criminal behavior is learned specific direction of motives are learned, some are favorable/un-favorable to lawo 2. Learn through

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FSU CJJ 4010 - Test #2 – Study Guide

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