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CHD 4630 Test 2 Study GuideAvailable data• Usefulness o When main concern is relevance; use info we are familiar witho Video Examples: Lady talking about oral history- struggles and excitement of looking back and seeing changes Kaiser- Old tv commercial- compare this old commercial to those of today. Differences in culture Little boys talking about acts of violence in the 3 Stooges- used content analysis People at the laundry mat- interviewed different people’s opinions of the laundry mat- the appropriate ways to act in laundry mats and etiquette of laundry mats Trends of college students- what and where they eat, why, technology influence on every day life.• Content analysis and principles Use counting (numerical data) and description (word, visuals as data) evidence for findingso Systematic analysis of given info to infer meanings that are relevant to the research problemo Process to interpret meaning from texts in light of a goalo Documents of all sorts: news items, books & magazines, drawings, photos, journals, advertisements, television episodes, blogs, movies, etc.)o GOAL:1. Classification= most basic form of content analysis Establish the existence and frequency of concepts in a text Docs can be organized chronologically or into diff categories If you generate a classification, it should meet the properties of the nominal measurement scale and classify the data into mutually exclusive categories2. Evaluation take the analysis of the docs further Clarify meanings and value in a text.o Data is presented chronologically and thematically• Ethnographic research and principles o Discovery of meaning concerning a selected socio-cultural phenomena; Processes, relationships, beliefs, values, behaviors, groupings, hierarchies, symbols/artifactso Focus on a “microculture” (can be a child care center, neighborhood, etc.) Go into the “field”: Informants are interviewed behaviors observed documents studied Involves an extended time seeking to reveal cultural themes of the phenomena under study.• Historical research & principles o Systematic examination and account of past events. “To identify patterns of children’s play in the early 1900s.”o Interpretation of past events to recapture nuances, personalities, cultural norms, and and/or ideas that influenced these events. o Purpose of historical research:  Communicate meanings of past events. Identify relationship of the past to the present  Record and evaluate the accomplishments of individuals, groups, agencies, or institutions. Assist in understanding the culture in which we live.o Identify, locate, and collect information pertaining to the research topic. o Possible data sources: diaries, relics, newspapers, records, items, photos, music Interview individuals with experience or knowledge of the topic (oral histories).o Primary source is a source that has a direct involvement with the event being investigated: diary, oral history, etc.o Secondary data is reportage based on others accounts  Might cover wide ground Less validity than direct observations o Relevant techniques for historical research=1. External criticism- involves identifying whether data is genuine and authentic; Relates to VALIDITY issuea. Might need to involve detailed technical analysis2. Internal criticism- involves consideration of the meaning of the data, accuracy; Relates to RELIABILTYa. Having established a doc is genuine, we also need to consider what it means• Sampling principles o Available documentary data often does NOT meet formal sampling requirementso Filed away documents are difficult to gauge completenessCase Studies:• Research method used to investigate an individual, dyad, small group, institution, or community that is unique/of special interest. OR to investigate a particular phenomenon• Commonly associated with qualitative research but often combine diff techniques• Illuminate quantitative findings and incorporate quantitative data• GOAL= organize detailed data to discover larger themes/patterns• Advantages :o Investigate new ideas arising from the datao Longitudinal viewo In-depth illustrationo Grounded- real sense of life- what data exactly showso Find meaningful patterns in datao Can be compared to other literatureo Help make decisions (look at context and go from there)• Disadvantages :o Biggest potential problem= the researchero Researcher biaso Generalizing can appear• Uses o Explore ideas for a larger studyo Pilot test of a planned studyo Follow up to gain more depth underlying a quantitative surveyo Often valuable on its own merit! Unusual situations, characteristics, problems. Small, understudied populations, hard to get participants, MFT or other types of professional practices. Describe processes, effects of events, or interventions Explain complex phenomenao Comparative cases (boy and girl of same age doing a similar task.)o Typical or unusual- flexibility• Principles for case study research: o Open to new discoveries from the datao Find meaningful patternso Compared with other literatureo Help make decisionso 2 perspectives1. Primary interest is a particular theory or issuea. Single example illustrating general principle- too small to make reliable generalizations2. Case as primary interest that is impo in itselfa. Research pop- does not represent other pop and extrapolationscannot be made to themo Representativeness can be increased by choosing the case systematically• Types of samples o Sample of one 3 uses:1. Preliminary investigations—conducted prior to the main study to identify key variables2. Pilot tests—another form of restricted case study3. Follow up studies—used to examine more deeply particular issues identified in the main survey; prove to be very substantialo Total Population 4 diff focuses:1. Individuals2. Projects—can be formative evaluations(during the project) or summative evaluations (at the end of the project); analyze the entire activity and use mixed methods3. Institutions—can be focus when interested in the history and nature of a particular organization4. Communities• Video examples:o Dad and kids on playground- difference in boy and girls behaviors and attitudeso Parents interaction with young son- very judgmental- see researchers observing behind 2 way mirror and using an observational checklist. o Baby eating lemon- could measure by mothers

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FSU CHD 4630 - Test 2 Study Guide

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