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BC MU 06601 - Intro to Music Test #1

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Intro to Music Test #14 Instrument Families:• Brass• Winds• Strings• Percussion-“Color” of an instrument is the way it sounds… almost like timbreThe Middle Ages (800-1400)Gregorian Chant- earliest music (religious- named after Pope Gregory)• Based on modes, not scales• Most important not in any mode is called final- first and last note• Reciting tone is 1/5 above the final-Cadence: Break in the music… almost like a comma3 Types of Chant Melody:1. Syllabic- One musical note per syllable2. Neumatic- Few musical notes per syllable3. Melismatic- Many musical notes per syllable (ex. adele)3 Textures (Layers):1. Monophony- One Voice2. Homophony- Main line w/ subordinates beneath it3. Polyphony- Many lines of music independent of each otherCantus Firmus- Bottom voice; foundation“Play of Virtues”- Hildegard von Bingen*Combining sacred chant w/ secular song moved it from monophony to polyphony*Leonin and Perotin collected the first set of polyphonic music“Behold Spring” – Landini has many CADENCES, and voices come together afterwards called CONSONANCE… TRIPLE METER“I can all too well compare thy, my lady” – Machaut• Starts out as a love poem, but last stanza shows that love cannot happen“He who gladly serves” – Sabio• Incorporates all 3 texturesThe Renaissance (1400-1600)• With innovations of the printing press, music was more readily available to amateurs, which separated it from the church• Music was part of the Quadrivium of education in the Renaissance period*Medieval music was too jumbled… there was a new emphasis in this period on simpler music*Word painting was developed during this period-“The Cricket” – des Prez is a good example of word painting“Since Robin Hood” – Thomas Weelkes3 Styles:1. Iambic meter - (short-long)2. Trochaic – (long-short)3. Anapestic – (short-short-long)The Baroque Period (1600-1750) “Sing Joyfully” – William Byrd• Byrd was Catholic during a period where England was switching over to Anglican• Good example of WORD PAINTING*Opera grew during this period*Growth of dominant and independent voices-Transition from Modality (old) to Tonality (new)Tonality- collection of notesChords- 3 or more notes at the same time (hierarchically arranged)• Tonic Chord is home base… beginning and ending note• Dominant Chord (G,B,D)Dissinance- Bad sound… found in close intervals (notes next to each other)Consonance- Good sound… further intervals apart*Tonic – Dominant – Tonic (building up tension then relieving it)Florentine Camerata -Individuals who met in order to simplify music -Emphasized homophonic (mixed speech and song) -Gallileo’s son was a part of thisBasso Continuo- Continuous bass… keyboard instrument and low stringOPERA -Direct emotional singing, but only one emotion can be in each song -Libretto- words of an opera-Subdivides into: -ACTS -SCENES -ARIAS*Recitativo- 1 singer w/ basso continuo advances the plot*Aria/Arioso- Melismatic w/ opera… shows emotions“Orfeo”- Monteverdi *First OperaGeorge Handel -Composed operas, oratorios, and instrumental music -He moved around Germany while Bach did notORATORIO -Close to opera, but not staged and was a religious text -Created because opera producers needed something religious during Lent“The Messiah” – Handel• Recitativo: “He that Dwelleth in Heaven• Aria: “Thou Shalt Break Them”THE CANTADA -Religious work based on religious texts associated w/ Musical hymn (BACH) -Orchestra and chorus go back and forthKeyboard Instrument-Harpsichord-Clavichord-OrganBinary Form –starts in tonic (primary key), moves away, but eventually comes back to tonicTHE CONCERTO -Soloist battles against a larger group -3 Movements -Ritornello Form- Usually more boring than what the soloist is doing… repeated material throughout piece -Example: Bach’s Brandenburg Concerto -Alternation between Ritornello and soloist*Vivaldi (Red Priest) taught women at a local orphanage to play violin -wrote “The Four Seasons”Fugue- Baroque’s most famous form Bach Fugue in G Minor -Single theme… multiple voices in a round -Polyphonic.. subject(entries of the melody) is constant between different voices… they come in at different timesThe Middle Ages (800-1400)“Play of Virtues”- Hildegard von Bingen“Behold Spring” – Landini has many CADENCES, and voices come together afterwards called CONSONANCE… TRIPLE METER“I can all too well compare thy, my lady” – Machaut“He who gladly serves” – SabioThe Renaissance (1400-1600)-“The Cricket” – des Prez is a good example of word painting“Since Robin Hood” – Thomas WeelkesThe Baroque Period (1600-1750) “Sing Joyfully” – William Byrd“Orfeo”- Monteverdi *First Opera“The Messiah” – Handel ORATORIOBach’s Brandenburg Concerto HAS QUALITIES OF A CONCERTOWhat are the 4 Instrument Families?What is “Color”?What Was the Earliest Music? What was it based off of and it’s most important note?What is a Cadence?What Are the 3 Types of Chant Melody?What are the 3 textures/layers?What is Cantus Firmus?Important Songs from the Middle Ages?Important Songs from the Renaissance?Important Songs from the Baroque Period?Why did the Renaissance Period transition music from holy to secular?What type of emphasis did Renaissance composers put on music?What is word painting and which songs are good examples?3 Styles?What music form grew during Baroque period?First opera? Who wrote it?Baroque Period was a transition from _____ to _____?What is a chord? (Tonic- home, good Dominant- away from home)What is dissidence/consonance?What is the Florentine Camerata?How many emotions can be sung in Opera? What parts does an opera subdivide into?What progresses plot in an opera and what shows emotion?Differences between Opera and Oratorio?What is a famous Oratorio? (Handel’s pieces)What is the Cantada and who made it famous?Elements of the Concerto? Bach popularized fugue, cantada, and concertoWhat is Ritonello Form?Who/what piece is famous for concerto?What is fugue and who popularized


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