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1. Who were the winners and losers of the French Revolution? Why did some groups succeed and others fail. Aristocracy, Monarchy, Church, Sans-Culottes, Bourgeoisie and Peasantry. Those who benefitted the most from the French revolution were the Bourgeoisie and the peasantry. The nobility suffered but managed to assimilate into the new merging social class system church still good , whereas the sans culottes and the monarchy suffered the most losses. These groups succeeded and failed because of the overall radical goals and the ensuing moderate outcomes of the revolution. They succeed at the expense of othersBourgeoisie – winner. - with the old regime abolished, the middle class emerged as a powerful force. - Gain positions in French government- Commerce and free trade developing  secure position in society - by overthrowing the old feudal order and property laws, the franchise was expanded to them- rapid expansion of commerce and a capitalist societyo the reason they benefitted most is because although the revolution was radical in its goals, the outcome was moderate and that’s why most of the benefit stopped at the middle class rather than extending to the sans culottes. Peasantry – winner. - able to become owners of the land because they bought the lands that were seized by the church. - Workers in the cities had access to better laws, but continued to be less satisfied- Peasants were traditionally in the countryside so they weren’t affected by the chaos- this caused them to not have as many grievances as the sans culotteso They benefitted because they were not in the heart of the conflict geographically, also received the lands confiscated by the church. Sans-Culottes – loser. - felt like the revolution had passed them by.- They were the radical actors in the revolution and since the social outcomes were moderate they didn’t benefit as much as they wanted- During the thermidorian reaction, they were suppressed and removed from political life because they were thought to be too radicalo The reason they didn’t benefit as much is because they’re demands were too radical - no right to guild- excluded from political lifeo they were too radical Aristocracy – sorta loser, but not entirely- the nobility suffered, but it still survived- no longer had the special privileges, had to pay taxes and had to go to normal courts- still had their old aristocratic presence- merged with Bourgeoisie in a sense to become a powerful wealthy middle class group- the creation of a beacraucry that was merit based made it so they could not be promoted because of wealth or status; inside the new system was based on competitiono they experienced wins and losses because although their power and status was taken away, they still had their old aristocratic presence, and they successfully fused with the Bourgeoisie to create an upper middle classMonarchy – loser- lost because the monarchy and absolutism was abolished.- It tried to come back a few times with rulers trying to reestablish an absolutist rule, but the evolution of constitutional monarchy greatly limits powero Still may hold power but they lack their former control, making this the greatest victory of the French revolution, so therefore they are losersChurch – sorta loser- lands seized and given to the peasantry- used to make up the first estate - huge shift of power from the church to the state- de- Christianization continued to weaken their influenceo lost because they held most of the power so their power was most diminished. Resented because they were the first estate and didn’t have to pay taxes and there was already religious tension. People were angry that they controlled so much and made up such a small population. Their downfall signifies a significant shift because their land was given to the peasants, indicating a transfer of power from the highest ruling class to the lowesto during thermidorian reaction there is a revival Catholicism- 2. Why did Britain become the first nation in Europe to experience an industrial revolution?Britain was the first nation to experience an industrial revolution because they had the perfect conditions for mechanization. These conditions included results of an agricultural revolution, an evolving parliamentary democracy, a vast colonial empire, a commercial infrastructure, and natural resources. 1. agricultural revolution in the 18th century – pioneers, - innovations, have access to relatively cheap food, - corn laws were gone so food was inexpensive, have more disposable income, can buy more goods, - causes population booms – people move to cities- Sheffield steel works – factory in the north of England2. evolving Parliamentary democracy – corrupt in the early 19th century; - slowly widening the franchise; Britain doesn’t experience a French like revolution because they were gradually given more democracy; - empowers the middle class; wealthy industrialists and business men can make it into the Parliamentary system; middle class has commercial interests – industrializing government3. colonial empire – largest empire in the world “sun never sets on the British empire” vast, - protected by the royal navy, - able to protect the merchant marine trading ships- obsession with imperialism gives them the power of confidence and lets the rest of Europe see their power as well4. infrastructure – commercial, evolving. - Has a central bank, encourages economic growth. Responds to interest of investors, has stock market and paper currency, insurance industry. - All critical tools to support a great economy; develops sophisticated economy. - House of Commons – dominated by the middle class with commercial interests – want to expand the economy without politics getting in the way- Also have railroads and steamships – technology is key5. natural resources – enable it to have successful economy– vast quantities of coal and iron ore; key ingredients in helping Britain develop industry. – Textile factories – workshop of the world; north of England, successful and dynamic cities - - population explosionOverall Britain’s success is a result of its desire to modernize. It modernized its government, technology, industry, economy….This put them at a great advantage to the rest of Europe, especially places like Austria and Eastern Europe that were very behind on modernization. Britain saw it was time to change and didn’t hesitate, rather it let all its

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BC HS 03101 - Bourgeoisie

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